1296: Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed, during an armed conflict between Scotland and England.
1533: Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
1674: Jethro Tull, inventor of the see drill, is born.
1842: Ether is used as an anaesthetic for the first time.
1853: Birth of artist Vincent van Gogh.
1856: Russia signs the Treaty of Paris, ending the Crimean War.
1867: The US buys Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000.
1883: Count Karel Kinsky rides Zoedone to victory in the Grand National.
1894: George Bernard Shaw’s “Candida” premieres at Theatre Royal, South Shields.
1939: The Heinkel He 100 fighter sets a world airspeed record of 463 mph.
1942: The SS murders 200 inmates of Trawniki concentration camp.
1944: 781 British bombers attack Nuremberg.
1953: Albert Einstein announces revised unified field theory.
1954: Test Cricket debut of Garry Sobers for the West Indies v England.
1955: Marlon Brando wins the Oscar for best actor in On The Waterfront at the Academy Awards.
1959: The Dalai Lama flees Tibet and is granted political asylum in India.
1967: The photo session took place at Chelsea Manor studios in London for the cover of Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.
1968: Brian Fletcher wins the Grand National on 100/7 chance Red Alligator.
1972: North Vietnam launches a major offensive against South Vietnam.
1974: Brian Fletcher wins the Grand National on Red Rum for the second consecutive year.
1978: Paul Simonon and Nicky Headon from The Clash were arrested in Camden Town after shooting down racing pigeons with air guns from the roof of Chalk Farm Studios.
1979: MP Airey Neave is killed by an IRA car bomb as he exits the Palace of Westminster.
1981: US President Ronald Reagan is shot and wounded in an assassination attempt by John Hinckley.
1985: Ireland beat England 13-10 at Lansdowne Road, Dublin to clinch it’s 10th outright Five Nations Rugby Championship and sixth Triple Crown.
1986: Death of actor James Cagney aged 86.
1987: Vincent van Gogh’s “Sunflowers” sells for a record £22.5 million.
1992: Anthony Hopkins and Jodie Foster are awarded Oscars for Silence of the Lambs.
2000: Mick Jagger opened the new arts centre that had been named after him at Dartford Grammar. The singer said he had spent the worst years of his life at the school. On the same day, Richard Branson is knighted by the Prince of Wales at Buckingham Palace.
2001: At 15 years 9 months, swimmer Michael Phelps breaks the 200m butterfly world record at the US World Championship trials at Austin, Texas.
2002: The Queen Mother dies aged 102.
2004: Death of broadcaster Alistair Cooke aged 95.
2013: North Korea declares it is at a state of war with South Korea.
2018: Actor Bill Maynard (Walter Williams) dies aged 89.
BIRTHDAYS: Rolf Harris, entertainer, 90; Warren Beatty, actor/director, 83; Graeme Edge, drummer (The Moody Blues) 78; Eric Clapton, guitarist, 75; Johnny Walker (Peter Dingley) broadcaster 75; Eddie Jordan, F1 commentator, 72; Sue Cook, broadcaster, 71; Robbie Coltrane, actor, 70; Paul Reiser, actor, 63; MC Hammer (Stanley Burrell) former rapper, 58; Tracy Chapman, singer-songwriter, 56; Piers Morgan, broadcaster, 55; Martin Kent, guitarist (Skunk Anansie) 53; Celine Dion, singer, 52; Mark Consuelos, actor, 50; Norah Jones, singer, 41; Simon Webbe, singer (Blue) 41; Sergio Ramos, footballer, 34.