1291: Scottish nobles recognize the authority of English King Edward I.
1503: Christopher Columbus discovers the Cayman Islands.
1534: French navigator Jacques Cartier discovers Newfoundland.
1655: Jamaica is captured by the English.
1752: Benjamin Franklin tests the lightning conductor with his kite-flying experiment.
1774: Louis XVI ascends to the French throne.
1796: Napoleon defeats Austria in the Battle of Lodi Bridge.
1804: Prime Minister Henry Addington resigns and is replaced by William Pitt the Younger.
1837: New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.
1857: The Indian Mutiny against rule by the British East India Company begins with the revolt of the Sepoy soldiers in Meerut.
1865: Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops at Irwinsville, Georgia. On the same day, Major General Sam Jones, the Confederate military leader in Florida, South Carolina and South Georgia, surrenders to Union forces.
1869: The Golden Spike is driven, completing the first US Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, and connecting the Central Pacific Railroad with the Union Pacific.
1902: Portugal goes bankrupt.
1904: Death of journalist and explorer Henry Morton Stanley aged 63.
1906: The Russian Duma (Parliament) meets for the first time.
1910: The first aircraft air display is held at Hendon.
1915: A zeppelin drops hundreds of bombs on Southend. On the same day, Canadian physician Cluny MacPherson presents his gas mask invention to the British War Office.
1918: HMS Vindictive is scuppered to block the entrance of Ostend Harbour.
1922: Dr Ivy Williams is the first woman to be called to the English Bar.
1924: J Edgar Hoover is appointed head of the FBI.
1929: Golfer Walter Hagen wins his fourth British Open.
1933: Nazis stage public book burnings in Germany. On the same day, Paraguay declares war on Bolivia.
1940: Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as prime minister after Lord Halifax turns down the job. On the same day, German forces invade Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg while the first bombs fall on England in Kent and the Home Guard is formed.
1941: Hitler’s deputy Rudolph Hess escapes to Britain to open secret negotiations with the Allies, parachuting into Scotland. On the same day, the House of Commons is damaged in an air raid.
1945: The Allies capture Rangoon from the Japanese.
1961: “Beyond the Fringe” written and performed by Peter Cook, Dudley Moore, Alan Bennett and Jonathan Miller premieres in London.
1962: Singles chart:
- Wonderful Land – The Shadows
- Nut Rocker – B. Bumble and the Stingers
- Speak To Me Pretty – Brenda Lee
- Hey Baby – Bruce Channel
- Hey Little Girl – Del Shannon
- Love Letters – Ketty Lester
- Dream Baby – Roy Orbison
- Wonderful World Of The Young – Danny Williams
- The Party’s Over – Lonnie Donegan
- Never Goodbye – Karl Denver
1963: The Rolling Stones record their first single for Decca, a cover of Chuck Berry’s Come On, at Olympic Studios, London.
1964: Album chart:
- Rolling Stones – The Rolling Stones
- With The Beatles – The Beatles
- West Side Story – Original Soundtrack
- A Session With – The Dave Clark Five
- Stay With – The Hollies
- Please Please Me – The Beatles
- A Girl Called Dusty – Dusty Springfield
- Blue Gene – Gene Pitney
- Elvis’ Golden Records Volume 3 – Elvis Presley
- Dance With The Shadows – The Shadows
1967: Mick Jagger and Keith Richards appear before magistrates in Chichester charged with drug offences following a police raid on Keith’s Redlands home in February. They plead not guilty and are released on bail to appear for trial at West Sussex Quarter Sessions on June 22.
1969: US troops begin attack on Hill 937 (“Hamburger Hill”), Vietnam.
1973: Martial arts star Bruce Lee collapses in Golden Harvest studios in Hong Kong and is rushed to Hong Kong Baptist Hospital where doctors diagnose him with cerebral oedema.
1977: Death of actress Joan Crawford (Lucille LeSueur) aged 72.
1978: Liverpool beats FC Bruges 1-0 to win the European Cup at Wembley.
1981: Francois Mitterrand becomes president of France.
1986: Motley Crue drummer Tommy Lee marries TV star Heather Locklear in Santa Barbara California.
1989: Barcelona beat Sampdoria 1-0 to win the European Cup Winner’s Cup. On the same day, Manuel Noriega’s Panama government nullifies country’s elections, which the opposition had won by a 3-1 margin.
1994: Nelson Mandela becomes South Africa’s first black president after more than 300 years of white rule. On the same day, serial killer John Wayner Gacy is executed in Illinois.
1995: Britain lifts a 23-year ban on ministerial talks with Sinn Fein. On the sme day, Real Zaragoza beat Arsenal 2-1 to win the European Cup Winners Cup at the Parc des Princes in Paris thanks to a freak 45-yard lob which gets the better of keeper David Seaman in the last minute of extra time.
1998: Sinn Fein backs the Good Friday peace agreement in Northern Ireland.
1999: Songwriter Shel Silverstein dies of a heart attack aged 57.
2000: India’s population reaches 1 billion. On the same day, Bobby Brown is arrested at Newark airport, New Jersey, for breaking a probation order.
2005: A hand grenade lands about 65ft from U.S. President George W Bush while giving a speech to a crowd in Tbilisi, Georgia. It malfunctions and does not detonate.
2008: A Philippine court acquits Imelda Marcos in a 17-year-old case of 32 counts of illegal transfer of wealth totalling $863 million in Swiss bank accounts.
2012: The Red Cross suspends all humanitarian work in Pakistan after a worker is kidnapped and killed.
2014: Conchita Wurst wins the Eurovision Song Contest for Austria in Copenhagen.
2016: An Indian fertility clinic announces that a 70 year-old woman has successfully gave birth to a baby boy.
2017: President Donald Trump shares classified information about an ISIS plot with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Ambassador Sergey Kislyak in the Oval Office.
2018: R Kelly’s songs are removed from Spotify playlists following sexual abuse allegations. On the same day, Mathathir Mohamad is sworn in as the seventh Prime Minister of Malaysia, the world’s oldest leader at 92.
2021: Violence escalates between Palestinians and Israel after Israeli officers enter Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Rockets are fired from Gaza and airstrikes from Israel kill at least 31.
BIRTHDAYS: Barbara Taylor Bradford, author, 89; Donovan (Leitch), singer-songwriter, 76; Graham Gouldman, singer-songwriter (10cc) 76; Maureen Lipman, actress, 76; Dave Mason, singer-songwriter, (Traffic) 75; Sally James, TV presenter, 72; Sly (Lowell) Dunbar, drummer, 70; Bono (Paul Hewson) singer-songwriter (U2) 62; Linda Evangelista, model, 57; Jonathan Edwards, triple jumper, 56; Al Murray, comedian, 54; Dennis Bergkamp, footballer, 53; Sally Philips, actress/comedian, 52; Adam Lallana, footballer, 34; Richarlison (de Andrade) footballer, 25.