1291: Scottish nobles recognize the authority of English King Edward I.
1503: Christopher Columbus discovers the Cayman Islands.
1534: French navigator Jacques Cartier discovers Newfoundland.
1655: Jamaica is captured by the English.
1752: Benjamin Franklin tests the lightning conductor with his kite-flying experiment.
1774: Louis XVI ascends to the French throne.
1796: Napoleon defeats Austria in the Battle of Lodi Bridge.
1804: Prime Minister Henry Addington resigns and is replaced by William Pitt the Younger.
1837: New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.
1857: The Indian Mutiny against rule by the British East India Company begins with the revolt of the Sepoy soldiers in Meerut.
1865: Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops at Irwinsville, Georgia. On the same day, Major General Sam Jones, the Confederate military leader in Florida, South Carolina and South Georgia, surrenders to Union forces.
1869: The Golden Spike is driven, completing the first US Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, and connecting the Central Pacific Railroad with the Union Pacific.
1902: Portugal goes bankrupt.
1904: Death of journalist and explorer Henry Morton Stanley aged 63.
1906: The Russian Duma (Parliament) meets for the first time.
1910: The first aircraft air display is held at Hendon.
1915: A zeppelin drops hundred of bombs on Southend. On the same day, Canadian physician Cluny MacPherson presents his gas mask invention to the British War Office.
1918: HMS Vindictive is scuppered to block the entrance of Ostend Harbour.
1922: Dr Ivy Williams is the first woman to be called to the English Bar.
1924: J Edgar Hoover is appointed head of the FBI.
1929: Golfer Walter Hagen wins his fourth British Open.
1933: Nazis stage public book burnings in Germany. On the same day, Paraguay declares war on Bolivia.
1940: Formation of the Local Defence Volunteers (Home Guard). On the same day, Winston Churchill succeeds Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister and the first German bombs of the war fall on England at Chilham and Petham, in Kent.
1941: Hitler’s deputy Rudolph Hess escapes to Britain to open secret negotiations with the Allies, parachuting into Scotland. On the same day, the House of Commons is damaged in an air raid.
1945: The Allies capture Rangoon from the Japanese.
1961: “Beyond the Fringe” written and performed by Peter Cook, Dudley Moore, Alan Bennett and Jonathan Miller premieres in London.
1967: Mick Jagger and Keith Richards appeared at Chichester Crown Court charged with being in possession of drugs. They elect to go to trial pleading not guilty and were both granted £100 bail.
1970: David Bowie received an Ivor Novello Award for Best Original Song Space Oddity.
1973: Martial arts star Bruce Lee collapses in Golden Harvest studios in Hong Kong and is rushed to Hong Kong Baptist Hospital where doctors diagnose him with cerebral edema.
1977: Death of actress Joan Crawford (Lucille LeSueur) aged 72.
1978: Liverpool beats FC Bruges 1-0 to win the European Cup at Wembley.
1981: Francois Mitterrand becomes president of France.
1986: Motley Crue Tommy Lee married TV star Heather Locklear in Santa Barbara.
1989: Barcelona beat Sampdoria 1-0 to win the European Cup Winner’s Cup. On the same day, Manuel Noriega’s Panama government nullifies country’s elections, which the opposition had won by a 3-1 margin.
1994: Nelson Mandela is sworn in as South Africa’s first black president. On the same day, serial killer John Wayner Gacy is executed in Illinois.
1995: Britain lifts a 23-year ban on ministerial talks with Sinn Fein. On the same day, Real Zaragoza beats Arsenal 2-1 to win the European Cup Winner’s Cup in Paris.
2000: India’s population reaches 1 billion.
2008: A Philippine court acquits Imelda Marcos in a 17-year-old case of 32 counts of illegal transfer of wealth totaling $863 million in Swiss bank accounts.
2012: The Red Cross suspends all humanitarian work in Pakistan after a worker is kidnapped and killed.
2014: Conchita Wurst wins the Eurovision Song Contest for Austria in Copenhagen.
BIRTHDAYS: Barbara Taylor Bradford, author, 87; Donovan (Leitch) singer/songwriter, 74; Graham Gouldman, musician/songwriter (10cc), 74; Maureen Lipman, actress, 74; Dave Mason, musician (Traffic), 73; Sally James, frmer TISWAS presenter, 70; Sly Dunbar, drummer, 68; Bono (Paul Hewson), singer (U2), 60; Linda Evangelista, former model, 55; Jonathan Edwards, triple jumper, 54; Al Murray, comedian, 52; Dennis Bergkamp, former footballer, 51; Sally Philips, comedian/actress, 50.