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1264: Simon de Montfort the younger, Earl of Leicester, defeats Henry III at the Battle of Lewes in the 2nd Barons War.
1607: Colonists establish the first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown.
1610: The assassination of Henry IV of France brings 10 year-old Louis XIII to the French throne.
1643: Louis XIV becomes king of France at 4 years-old.
1702: England and The Netherlands declare war on France and Spain.
1747: The British fleet under Admiral George Anson defeats the French at first battle of Cape Finisterre.
1787: Delegates gather in Philadelphia to draw up US constitution.
1796: Gloucestershire country doctor Edward Jenner administers the first inoculation against smallpox using cowpox pus.
1811: Paraguay gains independence from Spain.
1832: Premiere of Felix Mendelssohn’s overture “The Hebrides” in London.
1842: Illustrated London News; the world’s first illustrated weekly newspaper, begins publication.
1853: Newspaper publisher Gail Borden patents his process for condensed milk.
1878: Vaseline is granted a patent in the US.
1889: The NSPCC is formed in London.
1908: The first passenger flight in an airplane.
1925: Death of author Henry Ryder Haggard aged 68.
1938: The England soccer team beats Nazi-Germany, 6-3.
1939: Lina Medina becomes the world’s youngest confirmed mother in medical history at the age of five.
1940: The Luftwaffe bombs Rotterdam and The Netherlands surrenders to Nazi Germany.
1944: Generals Rommel, Speidel and von Stulpnagel attempt to assassinate Hitler.
1948: Israel declares independence from British administration.
1949: US President Harry Truman signs a bill establishing a rocket test range at Cape Canaveral in Florida.
1955: The Warsaw Pact is signed by the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania.
1957: Elvis Presley was rushed to a Los Angeles hospital after swallowing a porcelain cap from one of his front teeth, which then lodged itself in one of his lungs.
1961: Stirling Moss wins the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix.
1963: Kuwait joins the UN.
1968: The Beatles announce the formation of Apple Corps.
1969: During a UK tour, Fairport Convention’s van crashed on the M1 motorway, killing the group’s 19 year-old drummer Martin Lamble and guitarist Richard Thompson’s girlfriend Jeannie Franklyn. On the same day, abortion and contraception is legalised in Canada.
1972: A 13 year old Catholic girl is shot dead by Loyalist paramilitaries in Ballymurphy, Belfast.
1973: Skylab, the first space station, is launched.
1976: Keith Relf, former singer for The Yardbirds, was electrocuted while tuning a guitar which was not properly earthed in his home. His body was found by his eight year-old son.
1977: Bobby Moore retires as a footballer.
1980: Valencia beat Arsenal 5-4 on penalties to win the European Cup Winner’s Cup in Brussels.
1986: The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation publishes Anne Frank’s complete diary.
1987: Film star Rita Hayworth (Margarita Cansino) dies from Alzheimer’s disease aged 68.
1988: Led Zeppelin reunited for the Atlantic Records 40th anniversary party at Madison Square Garden, New York, with Jason Bonham on drums. The event was marred by singer Robert Plant’s sudden refusal to perform Stairway To Heaven which is said to have upset guitarist Jimmy Page so much it affected his performance.
1989: Students begin a demonstration for democratic reforms in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.
1991: Winnie Mandela is sentenced to six years in prison for complicity in the kidnapping and beating of four youths, one of whom died, She is freed pending appeal. On the same day, Jiang Qing, widow of Chairman Mao, commits suicide in China at 77.
1993: During an auction at Christies in London the acoustic guitar that Elvis Presley used to make his first recordings in 1954, sold for £130,285.
1994: Manchester United defeat Chelsea 4-0 at Wembley Stadium to win the FA Cup.
1995: At 43 years, 162 days Manchester City goalkeeper John Burridge becomes the oldest player to appear in a Premier League match as City lose 3-2 at home to QPR.
1997: Barcelona beat Paris St Germain 1-0 to win the European Cup Winner’s Cup in Rotterdam.
1998: George Michael was fined £500 after being convicted of a “lewd act” in a Los Angeles lavatory. The Los Angeles court also ordered him to undergo psychological counselling and carry out 80 hours community service. On the same day, Frank Sintra died aged 82, after suffering a heart attack.
2004: Record producer Phil Spector was arrested after getting into a scuffle with his chauffeur at his California mansion.
2011: Manchester City beats Stoke City, 1-0 (Yaya Touré 74′) at Wembley to win the FA Cup.
2015: Blues guitarist B.B. King died in his sleep aged 89 from a series of small strokes caused by type 2 diabetes.
2016: The Beatles’ former press officer, Tony Barrow, who coined the term ‘The Fab Four’ to describe the band, died aged 80.
BIRTHDAYS: Sian Philips, actress, 86; Chay Blyth, yachtsman, 80; Francesca Annis, actress, 76; George Lucas, director, 76; Robert Zemekis, director, 68; David Byrne, singer/songwriter (Talking Heads), 68; Steve Hogarth, singer (Marillion), 64; Tim Roth, actor, 59; Ian Astbury, singer (The Cult) 58; Mike Inez, bassist (Alice In Chains), 54; Greg Davis, comedian, 52; Greg Kurstin, producer/songwriter, 51; Cate Blanchett, actress, 51; Danny Wood, singer (NKOTB), 49; Sofia Coppola, director, 49; Natalie Appleton, singer (All Saints), 47; Martine McCutcheon, actress, 44; Dan Auerbach, musician (The Black Keys), 41; Olly Murs, singer, 36; Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook founder, 36; Miranda Cosgrove, actress, 27.