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334BC: The Macedonian army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia at the Battle of the Granicus.
1176: Assassins attempt to kill Saladin near Aleppo.
1370: Jews are expelled and massacred in Brussels.
1455: Opening battle in the Wars of the Roses. Richard of York takes St Albans, capturing Henry VI.
1570: The first atlas ‘Theatrum Orbis Terrarum’ is published in Antwerp with 70 maps.
1813: Birth of composer Richard Wagner in Leipzig.
1826: HMS Beagle departs on its first voyage to survey Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.
1836: Felix Mendelssohn’s oratorio “St Paul” premieres in Dusseldorf.
1840: The transporting of British convicts to the New South Wales colony is abolished.
1849: Future US President Abraham Lincoln receives a patent for a device to lift a boat over shoals and obstructions.
1859: Birth of author Arthur Conan Doyle in Edinburgh.
1885: Author Victor Hugo dies aged 83.
1888: Leroy Buffington patents a system to build skyscrapers.
1897: The Blackwall Tunnel under the River Thames is officially opened.
1902: US President Theodore Roosevelt signs a treaty with Mexico under which both countries agree to submit a long-standing dispute over interest payments to the Court of Arbitration at The Hague.
1906: The Wright Brothers are granted a patent for their “flying machine.
1907: Birth of Laurence Olivier in Dorking.
1916: French troops assault Fort Douaumont but fail to recapture it after hours of dogged fighting during the Battle of Verdun.
1933: The first modern sighting of the Loch Ness Monster by Aldie and John Mackay.
1939: Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini sign the “Pact of Steel” in Berlin.
1941: British troops attack Baghdad.
1942: Mexico declares war on Nazi-Germany and Japan.
1946: The first US rocket to reach the edge of space is fired from White Sands Missile Range New Mexico.
1947: The US fires its first ballistic missile.
1957: South Africa’s government approves race separation in universities.
1958: Jerry Lee Lewis arrived at Heathrow Airport to begin his first British tour, along with his new bride, his 14 year old third cousin, Myra. The controversy leads to his British tour being cancelled after just three of the scheduled 37 performances.
1963: AC Milan becomes the first Italian side to win the European Cup, beating Benfica 2-1 at Wembley Stadium.
1967: Egyptian president Nassar closes the Straits of Tiran to Israel.
1972: Ceylon becomes Republic of Sri Lanka as its constitution is ratified. On the same day, more than 400 women in Derry attack the offices of Sinn Féin in Derry, North Ireland, following the shooting of William Best by the IRA and Poet Laureate Cecil Day-Lewis dies aged 68.
1973: President Richard Nixon confesses his role in the Watergate cover-up.
1977: The final European scheduled run of the Orient Express after 94 years.
1985: US sailor Michael L Walker arrested for spying for the USSR.
1990: Microsoft releases Windows 3.0. On the same day, North and South Yemen merge to form the Republic of Yemen.
1991: Wil Sinnott from The Shamen drowns while swimming off the coast of La Gomera, Tenerife.
1993: Riddick Bowe TKOs Jesse Ferguson in Round 2 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1998: A federal judge rules that Secret Service agents can be compelled to testify before a grand jury concerning the scandal, involving President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky.
2000: Robbie Williams set up a children’s charity with the cash he earned from a deal with Pepsi.
2002: Adam Ant (Stuart Goddard) appeared at The Old Bailey in London charged with possession of an imitation firearm after an altercation at The Prince of Wales pub in January when a bouncer refused to let him in. On the same day, a jury in Birmingham, Alabama, convicts former Ku Klux Klan member Bobby Frank Cherry of the 1963 murders of four girls in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church.
2004: Manmohan Singh becomes Prime Minister of India. On the same day, the town of Hallam, Nebraska, is wiped out by a powerful F4 tornado that broke a width record at an astounding 2.5 miles wide. “Fahrenheit 9/11”, directed by Michael Moore becomes the first documentary to win the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival and Manchester United beats Millwall, 3-0 to win the FA Cup at the Millennium Stadium, Cardiff.
2011: Sherlock wins best drama at the BAFTA Television Awards.
2013: British Army Fusilier Lee Rigby is murdered in the street near the Royal Artillery Barracks in London by two Islamic terrorists.
2016: A Gibson Dove guitar that Elvis Presley was given by his father sold for $334,000 at an auction in New York. On the same day, “I, Daniel Blake,” directed by Ken Loach wins the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
2017: A suicide bombing at Manchester Arena after an Ariana Grande concert kills 22 and injures 59.
BIRTHDAYS: Richard Benjamin, director/actor, 82; Bernie Taupin, lyricist, 70; Jerry Dammers, keyboardist, 66; Mary Black, singer/songwriter, 65; Morrissey (Steven), singer, 61; Naomis Campbell, model, 50; Novak Djokovic, tennis champion, 33.