1521: The Edict of Worms outlaws Martin Luther and his followers.
1659: Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England, earning the nickname “Tumbledown Dick” as a result of his abrupt fall from power.
1660: Charles II returns to England, landing in Dover.
1661: Charles II marries Portuguese princess Catherina of Braganca.
1878: Gilbert & Sullivan’s comic opera “H.M.S. Pinafore” premieres in London.
1879: Birth of newspaper publisher Lord Beaverbrook (William Maxwell Aitken) in Canada.
1887: A gas lamp catches fire at the Paris Opera. 200 die.
1895: Oscar Wilde is sentenced to two years imprisonment for gross indecency. On the same day, the Republic of Formosa is formed with Tang Ching-sung as president.
1914: The House of Commons passes the Irish Home Rule Bill.
1915: The second Battle of Ypres ends with 105,000 casualties.
1927: Henry Ford announces that he is ending production of the Model T Ford.
1932: First appearance of Goofy (Dippy Dawg) in a Disney cartoon.
1934: Death of composer Gustav Holst aged 59.
1935: Athlete Jesse Owens equals or breaks four world records in 45 minutes in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
1938: The bombing of Alicante in the Spanish Civil War.
1940: German troops conquer Boulogne.
1945: Arthur C Clark proposes relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit.
1946: Jordan gains independence from Britain.
1948: Polish resistance fighter Witold Pilecki is executed by communist police after a show trial in Warsaw.
1949: The Chinese Red army occupies Shanghai.
1961: President John F Kennedy announces the US goal of putting a man on the Moon before the end of decade.
1965: Blues harmonica player, singer and songwriter, Sonny Boy Williamson died in his sleep aged 65. On the same day, Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) knocks out Sonny Liston in Round 1 of the world heavyweight title rematch.
1966: Peru and Argentina soccer fans fight in Lima. 248 die.
1967: Celtic beat Inter Milan 2-1 in Lisbon to become the first British .team to win the European Cup.
1969: The government of Sudan is overthrown in a military coup.
1971: The Provisional IRA throw a time bomb into Springfield Road British Army base in Belfast, killing Sergeant Michael Willetts and wounding seven officers.
1973: The US launches the first Skylab crew – Pete Conrad, Joseph Kerwin and Paul Weitz.
1977: Release of the first Star Wars film – Episode IV: A New Hope. On the same day, Liverpool beats Borussia Monchengladbach 3-1 in Rome to win the European Cup.
1989: Mikhail Gorbachev is elected Executive President in the Soviet Union.
2000: “Dancer in the Dark” directed by Lars von Trier and starring Bjork wins the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
2001: Erik Weihenmayer, 32, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2006: Jamaican reggae singer/songwriter Desmond Dekker (Dacres) died of a heart attack at his home in London.
2007: Sixties pop star Wayne Fontana was remanded in custody after admitting pouring petrol over a bailiff’s car and setting fire to it. The judge criticised the former lead singer of the Mindbenders, for arriving at Derby Crown court dressed as the Lady of Justice. He had to hand a sword and scales to guards but still wore a crown, cape and dark glasses, claiming “justice is blind”.
2012: Up to 116 people are massacred, including women and children, by the Syrian army in Houla, in the Homs province. On the same day, Elon Musk’s Space X Dragon becomes the first commercial craft to dock at the International Space Station.
2013: Bassist Marshall Lytlle (Bill Haley and his Comets) died aged 79. On the same day, Yuichiro Miura of Japan becomes the oldest person to climb Mount Everest at 80.
2018: Film producer Harvey Weinstein turns himself in to New York police to face charges of rape, a criminal sex act, sex abuse and sexual misconduct.
2019: Bong Joon-ho’s “Parasite” wins the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
BIRTHDAYS: Sir Ian McKellen, actor, 81; Frank Oz, director/puppeteer (voice of Fozzy Bear and Miss Piggy), 76; Klaus Meine, singer, (The Scorpions) 72; Robbie Steinhardt, violinist/singer (Kansas) 70; Paul Weller, singer-guitarist/songwriter, 62; Julian Clary, comedian, 61; Mike Myers, comedian/actor, 57; Anne Heche, actress, 51; Lauryn Hiill, singer, 45; Cillian Murphy, actor, 44; Jonny Wilkinson, rugby legend, 41; Joe King, singer/guitarist (The Fray) 40.