1431: Joan of Arc is accused of relapsing into heresy by donning male clothing again, providing justification for her execution.
1533: The Archbishop of Canterbury voids the marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
1588: The Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina-Sidonia departs Lisbon to invade England.
1608: Claudio Monteverdi’s “Arianna” premieres in Mantua, Italy.
1644: Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of the Earl of Derby in the English Civil War.
1660: George I of England is born in Hannover. He never learned to speak English.
1742: The first indoor swimming pool opens at Goodman’s Fields in London.
1759: Birth of William Pitt The Younger in Kent.
1830: US President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, authorising the army to force Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes out of Georgia and surrounding states.
1845: A fire in Quebec, Canada, destroys 1,500 houses.
1849: Death of novelist Anne Bronte aged 29.
1878: Death of former British Prime Minister Earl Russell aged 85.
1888: Celtic play their first match…against Rangers.
1889: Edouard and Andre Michelin incorporate the Michelin tyre company.
1900: Paul Kruger, President of the Boer Republic of South Africa, flees its capital, Pretoria, to evade advancing British troops.
1918: Azerbaijan gains independence and declares itself a Democratic Republic. On the same day, Armenia declares independence from the Russian Empire.
1926: Military coup by General Manuel Gomes da Costa in Portugal.
1934: Sir Jack Hobbs scores his 197th and last first class cricket century at 51 years 163 days old. On the same day, The Glyndebourne festival is inaugurated in Sussex.
1936: Alan Turing submits “On Computable Numbers” for publication, in which he sets out the theoretical basis for modern computers.
1937: The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco opens to traffic. On the same day, Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the UK.
1940: Belgium surrenders to Nazi Germany.
1941: Allied troops begin the evacuation of Crete.
1948: The Israeli Air Force is officially founded. On the same day, Unity Mitford, fascist sympathiser, dies from the effects of a bullet in the head at 33.
1951: Princess Elizabeth opens the Exhibition of Industrial Power in Glasgow – the latest show in the Festival of Britain. On the same day, the programme “Crazy People” (later retitled The Goon Show), created by Spike Milligan, premieres on the BBC.
1952: Greece grants women the right to vote.
1958: Real Madrid beats AC Milan, 3-2 in Brussels to win the European Cup for the third consecutive time.
1959: Billy Wright makes his then record 105th and final appearance for the England football team in an 8-1 victory against the USA in LA. On the same day, two monkeys become the first living creatures to survive a space flight aboard a rocket launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida.
1960: Peterborough United are elected to the Football League and Gateshead are voted out.
1961: Amnesty International is founded.
1964: The Palestine Liberation Organisation is formed in Jerusalem. On the same day, the unmanned Apollo 2 Saturn test is launched into Earth orbit.
- You’re My World – Cilla Black
- Juliet – The Four Pennies
- My Boy Lollipop – Millie
- It’s Over – Roy Orbison
- Constantly – Cliff Richard
- A Little Loving – The Fourmost
- The Rise And Fall Of Flingel Bunt – The Shadows
- Don’t Throw Your Love Away – The Searchers
- I Believe – The Bachelors
- No Particular Place To Go – Chuck Berry
1966: The Beatles spend the day with Bob Dylan in his room at the Mayfair hotel in London, watching rushes of D.A. Pennebakers’s forthcoming Dylan documentary film, Don’t Look Back.
1967: Francis Chichester arrives in Plymouth in his yacht, Gipsy Moth IV, after becoming he first man to sail solo around the world with only one port of call (in Sydney, Australia).
- The Sound Of Music – Original Soundtrack
- More Of The Monkees – The Monkees
- The Green Green Grass Of Home – Tom Jones
- Best Of – The Beach Boys
- A Drop Of The Hard Stuff – The Dubliners
- Are You Experienced – The Jimi Hendrix Experience
- The Monkees – The Monkees
- Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band – The Beatles
- This Is James Last – James Last
- Fiddler On The Roof – Original London Cast
1969: Mick Jagger and Marianne Faithfull are arrested at their London home and charged with possession of cannabis.
1970: Several men are charged in Dublin with conspiracy to illegally import arms for use by the IRA.
1971: The USSR’s Mars 3 is launched – the first spacecraft to soft land on Mars. On the same day, Audie Murphy, actor and American soldier who was among the most decorated in the Second World War, dies in a plane crash aged 46.
1972: Four Provisional IRA volunteers and four civilians are killed when a bomb they were preparing explodes prematurely at a house in Belfast. On the same day, White House “plumbers” carry out their first break-in at Democratic National Headquarters at the Watergate Complex in Washington, D.C., and the Duke of Windsor (formerly King Edward VIII) dies aged 77.
1974: Northern Ireland’s first power-sharing assembly collapses after its leader Brian Faulkner steps down.
1975: Bayern Munich beat Leeds United 2-0 in Paris to win the European Cup.
1976: The Allman Brothers Band temporarily disband after Greg Allman testifies against Scooter Herring, his personal road manager, who was charged with drug trafficking. Herring was subsequently sentenced to 75 years in prison. On the same day, “Taxi Driver”, directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Robert De Niro wins the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
1977: Sting, Stewart Copeland and Andy Summers play together for the first time as part of Mike Howlett’s band, Strontium 90 in Paris.
1980: Brian Clough’s Nottingham Forest beat Hamburg 1-0 in Madrid to win the European Cup for the second time in a row.
1982: Pope John Paul II becomes the first reigning pontiff to visit Great Britain. On the same day, Lt Col ‘H’. Jones VC, Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment, is killed during the Falklands Conflict.
1983: The four day US Festival ’83’ begins in California. Acts appearing include The Clash, Ozzy Osbourne, Judas Priest, US, The Pretenders, Van Halen and David Bowie.
1984: Comedian Eric Morecambe dies after suffering a heart attack immediately after walking off stage following a Q&A session with Stan Sennett.
1985: Head of the American University of Beirut Medical Center, David Jacobsen, is taken hostage by Hezbollah.
1987: Mathias Rust, an 18 year-old West German pilot, makes an unauthorized landing in Red Square, Moscow.
1991: Ethiopian rebels seize Addis Ababa.
1995: An earthquake hits the Russian town of Khabarovsk, killing 2,000 people. On the same day, fashion designer Jean Muir dies aged 66.
1996: Depeche Mode singer Dave Gahan is rushed to Cedars Sinai Hospital, Los Angeles after a heroin overdose.
1997: Aviator Linda Finch completes Amelia Earhart’s attempted around-the-world flight.
1998: Pakistan explodes five underground nuclear devices in response to India’s recent nuclear tests, provoking worldwide condemnation. On the same day, Canadian actor and comedian Phil Hartman is murdered in his sleep by his wife.
1999: Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece “The Last Supper” is put back on display in Milan after 22 years of restoration work.
2007: Right Said Fred singer Richard Fairbrass and gay rights activist Peter Tatchell, were both attacked during a march against a ban on gay rights in Moscow.
2011: Barcelona beats Manchester United, 3-1 in London to win the Champions League.
2014: Death of poet and author Maya Angelou (Marguerite Johnson) aged 86.
2015: Michael Jackson’s former home, Neverland Ranch, is listed for sale for $100million.
2017: Death of veteran Children’s TV presenter John Noakes aged 83.
2020: Minnesota Governor Tim Walz declares a State of Emergency in Minneapolis and activates the Minnesota National Guard after protests over the death of George Floyd in custody.
BIRTHDAYS: Gladys Knight, singer, 77; Rudy Juliani, Trump attorney/former mayor of New York, 77; John Fogerty, singer-songwriter, 76; Leland Sklar, bassist, 74; Sue Holderness, actress, 72; Andy Hamilton, comedy writer, 67; Julie Peasgood, actress, 65; Mary Portas, retail consultant/broadcaster, 61; Michelle Collins, actress, 60; Roland Gift, singer (Fine Young Cannibals) 59; Gavin Harrison, drummer (King Crimson/Porcupine Tree/The Pineapple Thief), 58; Christa Miller, actress, 57; David Baddiel, comedian/writer, 57; Kylie Minogue, singer/actress, 53; Jimi Goodwin, vocals/bass (Doves) 51; (Mark) Jake Johnson (Weinberger), actor, 43; Nonso Anozie, actor, 43; Mark Feehily, singer (Westlife) 40; Carey Mulligan (Mumford), actress, 36; Michael Oher, American footballer, 35; Kyle Walker, footballer, 31; Alexandre Lacazette, footballer, 30; Jonnie Peacock, athlete, 28; John Stones, footballer, 27; Phil Foden, footballer, 21.