1431: Joan of Arc is accused of relapsing into heresy by donning male clothing again, providing justification for her execution.
1533: The Archbishop of Canterbury voids the marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
1588: The Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina-Sidonia departs Lisbon to invade England.
1608: Claudio Monteverdi’s “Arianna” premieres in Mantua, Italy.
1644: Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of the Earl of Derby in the English Civil War.
1660: George I of England is born in Hannover. He never learned to speak English.
1742: The first indoor swimming pool opens at Goodman’s Fields in London.
1759: Birth of William Pitt The Younger in Kent.
1830: US President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, authorising the army to force Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes out of Georgia and surrounding states.
1845: A fire in Quebec, Canada, destroys 1,500 houses.
1849: Death of novelist Anne Bronte aged 29.
1878: Death of former British Prime Minister Earl Russell aged 85.
1889: Edouard and Andre Michelin incorporate the Michelin tyre company.
1900: Paul Kruger, President of the Boer Republic of South Africa, flees its capital, Pretoria, to evade advancing British troops.
1918: Azerbaijan gains independence and declares itself a Democratic Republic. On the same day, Armenia declares independence from the Russian Empire.
1926: Military coup by General Manuel Gomes da Costa in Portugal.
1934: Sir Jack Hobbs scores his 197th and last first class cricket century at 51 years 163 days old. On the same day, The Glyndebourne festival is inaugurated in Sussex.
1936: Alan Turing submits “On Computable Numbers” for publication, in which he sets out the theoretical basis for modern computers.
1937: The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco opens to traffic. On the same day, Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the UK.
1940: Belgium surrenders to Nazi Germany.
1941: Allied troops begin the evacuation of Crete.
1948: The Israeli Air Force is officially founded. On the same day, Unity Mitford, fascist sympathiser, dies from the effects of a bullet in the head at 33.
1951: Radio programme “Crazy People” (later titled The Goon Show), created by Spike Milligan, premieres on the BBC.
1952: Greece grants women the right to vote.
1958: Real Madrid beats AC Milan, 3-2 in Brussels to win the European Cup for the third consecutive time.
1961: Amnesty International is founded.
1964: The PLO is formed in Jerusalem. On the same day, the unmanned Apollo 2 Saturn test is launched into Earth orbit,
1967: Yachtsman Francis Chichester arrives at Plymouth to complete his solo round-the-world trip.
1970: Several men are charged in Dublin with conspiracy to illegally import arms for use by the IRA.
1971: The USSR’s Mars 3 is launched – the first spacecraft to soft land on Mars. On the same day, Audie Murphy, actor and American soldier who was among the most decorated in WW II, dies in a plane crash aged 46.
1972: Four Provisional IRA volunteers and four civilians are killed when a bomb they were preparing explodes prematurely at a house in Belfast. On the same day, White House “plumbers” carry out their first break-in at Democratic National Headquarters at the Watergate Complex in Washington, D.C., and the Duke of Windsor (formerly King Edward VIII) dies aged 77.
1974: M*A*S*H wins the Emmy for Outstanding Comedy Series.
1975: Bayern Munich beat Leeds United 2-0 in Paris to win the European Cup.
1976: “Taxi Driver”, directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Robert De Niro wins the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
1980: Brian Clough’s Nottingham Forest beat Hamburg 1-0 in Madrid to win the European Cup for the second time in a row.
1982: Pope John Paul II becomes the first reigning pontiff to visit Great Britain. On the same day, Lt Col ‘H’. Jones VC, Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment, is killed during the Falklands Conflict.
1983: The four day US Festival ’83’ took place in California in front of a crowd of 750,000, featuring The Clash, U2, David Bowie, The Pretenders, Van Halen and Ozzy Osbourne amongst others.
1984: Comedian Eric Morecambe dies after suffering a heart attack immediately after walking off stage following a Q&A session with Stan Sennett.
1985: Head of the American University of Beirut Medical Center, David Jacobsen, is taken hostage by Hezbollah.
1987: Mathias Rust, an 18 year-old West German pilot, makes an unauthorized landing in Red Square, Moscow.
1991: Ethiopian rebels seize Addis Ababa.
1995: An earthquake hits the Russian town of Khabarovsk, killing 2,000 people. On the same day, fashion designer Jean Muir dies aged 66.
1996: Depeche Mode singer Dave Gahan was rushed to Cedars Sinai Hospital, Los Angeles after an apparent drug overdose. The singer was later arrested for possession of cocaine and heroin. On the same day, US President Bill Clinton’s former business partners in the Whitewater land deal, James McDougal and Susan McDougal, and Arkansas Governor Jim Guy Tucker, are convicted of fraud.
1997: Aviator Linda Finch completes Amelia Earhart’s attempted around-the-world flight.
1998: Canadian actor and comedian Phil Hartman is murdered in his sleep by his wife.
1999: Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece “The Last Supper” is put back on display in Milan after 22 years of restoration work.
2007: Right Said Fred singer Richard Fairbrass and gay rights activist Peter Tatchell, were both attacked during a gay rights march in Moscow.
2011: Barcelona beats Manchester United, 3-1 in London to win the Champions League.
2014: Death of poet and author Maya Angelou (Marguerite Johnson) aged 86.
2015: Michael Jackson’s former home, Neverland Ranch, was listed for sale for $100million.
2017: Death of TV presenter John Noakes aged 83.
BIRTHDAYS: Baron Renton of Mount Harry, politician, 88; Gladys Knight, singer, 76; Rudi Giuliani, attorney to President Trump and former mayor of New York, 76; John Fogerty, singer-guitarist/songwriter, 75; Leyland Sklar, bassist, 73; Sue Holderness, actress, 71; Roland Gift, singer (Fine Young Cannibals) 58; Gavin Harrison, drummer (King Crimson/The Pineapple Thief) 57; Christa Miller, actress, 55; Kylie Minogue, singer/actress, 52; Jimi Goodwin, bass/vocals (Doves) 50; Mark Feehily, singer (Westlife), 39; Alexandre Lacazette, footballer, 29.