1483: Birth of German theologian Martin Luther.
1619: Rene Descartes has the dream that inspires his “Meditations on First Philosophy”.
1674: The Dutch formally cede New Netherlands (New York) to the British.
1683: Birth of George II.
1697: Birth of artist William Hogarth.
1730: Birth of Irish dramatist Oliver Goldsmith.
1871: Henry Morton Stanley encounters David Livingstone at Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika with the immortal words “Dr Livingstone, I presume?”
1880: Birth of sculptor Jacob Epstein.
1885: German engineer Gottlieb Daimler unveils the world’s first motorcycle.
1891: Granville T Woods patents the electric railway. On the same day, French poet Arthur Rimbaud dies aged 37.
1911: The Chinese Imperial army recaptures Nanking.
1938: Death of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, first president of Turkey.
1940: Walt Disney begins serving as an informer for the Los Angeles office of the FBI; his job is to report back information on Hollywood subversives .
1950: William Faulkner wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1951: The first long distance telephone call without operator assistance.
1952: Trygve Lie resigns as the first Secretary General of the United Nations.
1954: Lt Col John Stapp travels at 632 mph in a rocket sled.
1969: Sesame Street premieres on US television.
1975: PLO leader Yasser Arafat addresses the UN.
1982: Death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev aged 75.
1983: Marvin Hagler retains his world middleweight boxing title with a 15-round unanimous points decision over Roberto Durán at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas.
1989: Germans begin to demolish the Berlin Wall.
1996: Death of newspaper agony aunt Marje Proops.
2006: Death of actor Jack Palance (Vladimir Palahniuk) aged 87.
2007: Death of author Norman Mailer aged 84.
2014: Cranberries singer Dolores O’Riordan was arrested following an alleged air rage incident on a flight from the US.
BIRTHDAYS: Sir Tim Rice, lyricist, 75; Roland Emmerich, director, 64; Neil Gaiman, writer, 59; Hugh Bonneville, actor, 56; Ellen Pompeo, actress, 50; Jens Lehmann, former footballer, 50; Jacqui Abbott, singer (Beautiful South), 46; Taron Egerton, actor, 30.