1640: Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, is impeached by the House of Lords on the evidence of John Pym and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1745: Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army enters England.
1790: Chrysanthemums are introduced to England from China.
1805: Battle of Dürenstein – 8000 French troops attempt to slow the retreat of a vastly superior Russian and Austrian force.
1821: Birth of Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevshy.
1855: Death of philosopher Søren Kierkegaard aged 42.
1880: Outlaw Ned Kelly is hanged at Melbourne Gaol.
1887: Construction of the Manchester Ship Canal begins at Eastham.
1889: Washington becomes the 42nd state of the US.
1901; Premiere of Maurice Ravel’s “Jeux d’eau”.
1911: Russia issues an ultimatum to Persia and follows it with an invasion of North Persia to impose political control.
1918: Armistice signed by the Allies and Germany comes into effect and hostilities end at 11am. On the same day, Poland declares independence and Emperor Charles I of Austria abdicates.
1920: The Cenotaph in Whitehall, designed by Edwin Lutyens, is unveiled.
1921: President Warren G Harding dedicates the Tomb of Unknown Soldier at Arlington Cemetery.
1923 : The eternal flame lit for tomb of unknown solder at the Arc de Triumph, Paris.
1925: Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five begin their first recording session. On the same day, Robert A Millican announces the discovery of cosmic rays.
1933: Billie Holiday’s second song and first hit, “Riffin’ the Scotch”, is released.
1942: Germany completes the occupation of France.
1945: Death of composer Jerome Kern.
1954: Publication of “Two Towers”, 2nd volume of “Lord of the Rings”, by J R R Tolkien.
1961: “Catch-22” by Joseph Heller is published.
1965: The final recording session for The Beatles Rubber Soul album took place, at Abbey Road. They needed three new songs to finish the album so an old song ‘Wait’ was pulled off the shelf and the group recorded two new songs from start to finish. Paul’s ‘You Won’t See Me’ and John’s ‘Girl’, the basic tracks for both songs being completed in two takes. On the same day, Rhodesia proclaims unilateral independence from Britain.
1966: Gemini 12, with Jim Lovell and Buzz Aldrin on board is launched.
1969: The FBI in Phoenix, Arizona arrested Jim Morrison for drunk and disorderly conduct aboard a plane
1972: The Allman Brothers Band bass player Berry Oakley was killed when his motorcycle hit a bus at the same intersection as former band member Duane Allman, who had died a year earlier.
1975: Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam is removed from office by Governor General Sir John Kerr. He is the first elected PM removed in 200 yrs. Liberal leade Malcolm Fraser is sworn in as caretaker Prime Minister. On the same day, Angola gains independence from Portugal.
1983: Ronald Reagan becomes the first US President to address the Japanese legislature.
1987: Vincent can Gogh’s “Irises” sells for a record $53.6 million at auction.
1992: The Church of England approves the ordination of female priests.
1994: Microsoft CEO Bill Gates buys Leonardo da Vinci’s “Codex” for $30,800,000.
2001: Journalists Pierre Billaud, Johanne Sutton and Volker Handloik are killed in Afghanistan during an attack on the convoy they were traveling in.
2004: Yasser Arafat’s death aged 75 in Paris by unidentified causes is confirmed by the PLO.
2008: The QEII sets sail on her final voyage to Dubai.
2009: Guitarist David Gilmour received an honorary doctorate from Anglia Ruskin University
2014: The captain of a South Korean ferry which sank in April is found guilty of gross negligence and sentenced to 36 years in prison. On the same day, the people of Catalonia in north-eastern Spain vote in a disputed and non-binding poll on independence.
2015: Phil Taylor better known as “Philthy Animal” Taylor and drummer with Motorhead, died aged 61.
2018: The Democratic Republic of Congo announces its worst-ever outbreak of Ebola.
BIRTHDAYS: Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua, 74; Chris Dreja, musician (The Yardbirds) 74; Leonard ‘Chip’ Hawkes, musician, (The Tremeloes) 73; Fuzzy (Frank Urban) Zoeller, golfer, 68; Andy Partridge, musician (XTC) 66; Stanley Tucci, actor, 59; Demi Moore (Guynes), actress, 57; Calista Flockhart, actress, 55; Lesley Mann, actress, 47; Leonardo DiCaprio, actor, 45.