1492: Christopher Columbus makes the first recorded reference to tobacco.
1532: Pope Clemens VII tells Henry VIII to end relationship with Anna Boleyn.
1577: Sir Francis Drake sails from Chile to Washington aboard The Pelican.
1630: Death of German astronomer Johannes Kepler.
1720: Pirates Anne Bonny, Mary Read and John Rackham (Calico Jack) are captured and taken to Jamaica for trial.
1777: Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, is approved by the Continental Congress.
1832: Premiere of Felix Mendlesohn’s Symphony No 5.
1835: Charles Darwin reaches Tahiti aboard HMS Beagle.
1837: Isaac Pitman introduces his shorthand system.
1854: In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is given the necessary royal concession.
1887: Birth of artist Georgia O’Keeffe.
1889: Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, is deposed and a republic proclaimed.
1899: Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill is captured by Boers in Natal.
1904: King C Gillette patents the Gillette razor blade.
1920: The League of Nations holds its first meeting in Geneva.
1922: Andrew Bonar Law becomes Prime Minister as the Conservatives win the general election.
1956: Elvis Presley’s first film Love Me Tender premieres in the US.
1961: The UN bans nuclear arms.
1969: An estimated 2 million people take part in the Vietnam War Moratorium demonstration across the United States.
1973: Israel and Egypy exchange prisoners of war.
1976: The Syrian army conquers Beirut in Lebanon.
1979: Sir Anthony Blunt, art advisor to the Queen, is exposed as the fourth man in the Burgess, McLean, Philby Soviet spy ring.
1983: Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is proclaimed.
1987: Williams driver Nelson Piquet wins the Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1990: Milli Vanilli producer Frank Farian held a press conference to confirm the rumours that the two members of the group had not sung on any of their hit records.
1994: Helmut Kohl is elected Chancellor of Germany in the Bundestag by a single vote.
2002: Death of child murderer Myra Hindley aged 60.
2017: The Zimbabwean Army detains Robert Mugabe and the first family and appoints sacked Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa as interim president. On the same day, Leonardo da Vinci’s “Salvator Mundi” sells for $450.3 million at auction in New York, world record price for any artwork.
2018: David Hockney’s “Portrait of an Artist (Pool with Two Figures)” sells for $90.3 million in New York, a record for a living artist.
BIRTHDAYS: Petula (Sally Owen) Clark, singer, 87; Sam Waterson, actor, 79; Anni-Frid Lyngstad, singer, (ABBA) 74: Beverly D’Angelo, actress, 68; Alexander O’Neal, singer, 65; Christian “Flake” Lorenz, musician (Rammstein) 53; Jonny Lee Miller, actor, 47; Chad Kroeger, guitarist (Nickleback) 45; Peter Phillips, ninth in line to the British throne, 42; Krysten Ritter, actress, 38; Shailene Woodley, actress, 28.