1272: Death of Henry III.
1380: French King Charles VI declares no taxes for ever.
1532: Explorer Francisco Pizzaro captures Inca emperor Atahualpa in an ambush at Cajamarca in Peru.
1581: Tsar Ivan The Terrible attacks his son and heir, Ivan Ivanovich, with a sceptre after an argument ,leading to the latter’s death three days later.
1776: British troops capture Fort Washington during the American Revolution.
1840: New Zealand officially becomes a British colony.
1849: Russian court sentences writer Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group. His sentence is later commuted to hard labour.
1873: Birth of blues composer W C Handy.
1894: 6,000 Armenians are massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
1907: Oklahoma becomes the 46th state of the US.
1933: US President Franklin D Roosevelt establishes diplomatic relations with USSR.
1936: The German airforce begins bombing Madrid.
1938: LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) is first synthesized by Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.
1939: Gangster Al Capone is released from Alcatraz.
1940: The RAF bombs Hamburg.
1950: US President Harry Truman proclaims an emergency crisis caused by the ‘communist threat’.
1955: Bluebird K7, piloted by Donald Campbell, becomes the first speedboat to exceed 200 mph.
1960: Death of actor Clark Gable aged 59.
1961: The UK limits immigration from Commonwealth countries. On the same day, President Kennedy increases military aid to South Vietnam without committing US combat troops.
1969: The 1968 Mỹ Lai massacre of between 347 and 504 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by US soldiers is first reported.
1973: President Nixon authorizes construction of the Alaskan pipeline.
1981: President Reagan decides on a covert plan to block Cuban aid to Nicaragua and El Salvador.
1982: Death of actor/comedian Arthur Askey aged 82.
1987: Former Clash drummer Nicky ‘Topper’ Headon was jailed for 15 months at Maidstone Crown Court for supplying heroin to a man who later died.
1988: Benazir Bhutto’s PPP wins the first free Pakistani elections in 11 years.
1989: South African president F W de Klerk announces the scrapping of the Separate Amenities Act.
1995: The Queen Mother undergoes hip surgery. On the same day, US Attorney General Janet Reno announces she has Parkinson’s disease.
2000: Bill Clinton becomes the first US President to visit Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War.
2003: Lionel Messi makes his official debut for FC Barcelona in a friendly against Porto.
2008: Death of comedy actor Reg Varney aged 92.
2009: Death of actor Edward Woodward aged 79.
2010: The engagement is announced of Prince William to Kate Middleton.
2015: The Largest diamond discovered in more than a century, a 1,111 carat stone, is found in the Karowe mine, Botswana.
2018: The CIA concludes that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi Embassy in Turkey.
BIRTHDAYS: Dan Penn, songwriter, 78; Willie Carson, former jockey, 77; Griff Rhys Jones, humourist, 66; Cory Pavin, golfer, 60; Frank Bruno, former boxer, 58; Mani (Gary Mounfield), bassist (The Stone Roses), 57; Diana Krall, singer/musician, 55; Lisa Bonet, actress, 52; Martha Plimpton, actress, 49; Missi Pyle, actress, 47; Christian Horner, Red Bull F1 Team chief, 46; Paul Scholes, former footballer, 45; Maggie Gyllenhaal, actress, 42; Gemma Atkinson, actress, 35.