1355: The English army under Edward III lands at Calais.
1698: Scottish settlers make landfall in Panama.
1755: Birth of Marie Antoinette.
1852: Franklin Pierce is elected President of the US.
1859: Abolitionist John Brown is found guilty of murder, conspiring slaves to revolt and treason against Virginia and sentenced to hang.
1867: Fashion magazine Harper’s Bazaar is first published.
1880: James Garfield is elected 20th President of the US.
1899: Boers begin siege of Ladysmith, Natal.
1904: The Daily Mirror begins publication.
1914: Britain annexes Cyprus and also declares the North Sea a military area. On the same day, Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1920: Warren G Harding is elected President of the US.
1924: The Sunday Express publishes the first British crossword puzzle.
1930: Coronation of Ras Tafari Makonnen as Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethopian Solmonic Dynasty.
1932: Australian soldiers armed with Lewis Guns seek to cull the Emu population over crop destruction in Western Australia.
1936: The BBC begins the world’s first regular high-definition TV broadcast service from studios at Alexandra Palace.
1944: Auschwitz begins gassing inmates.
1947: Howard Hughes flies “Spruce Goose”, a huge wooden airplane for the first and last time.
1948: Harry Truman is re-elected as President of the US.
1950: Dramatist George Bernard Shaw dies aged 94.
1953: Pakistan becomes an islamic republic.
1954: BBC radio comedy “Hancock’s Half Hour” debuts starring Tony Hancock and Sid James.
1955: David Ben Gurion forms Israeli government.
1956: Hungary appeals for UN assistance against the Soviet invasion.
1959: The first section of the M1 motorway is opened from the present Junctions 5 to 18.
1960: Penguin Books is cleared of obscenity over the publication of D H Lawrence’s 1928 story Lady Chatterley’s Lover.
1963: President of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem is overthrown and assassinated in a coup by the South Vietnamese Army.
1964: Faisal succeeds Saud as King of Saudi Arabia.
1965: Craig Breedlove breaks the land speed record at the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, with a two-run average speed of 555.483 mph.
1967: The Beatles completed the recording of ‘Hello Goodbye’ at Abbey Road studios.
1976: Jimmy Carter is elected president of the US.
1983: The Michael Jackson single Thriller is released worldwide.
1984: Marvin Gaye’s father was sentenced to a suspended six-year sentence and probation for the manslaughter of his son. On the same day, serial killer Velma Barfield becomes the first woman to be executed in the United States since 1962.
1991: Australia beats England, 12-6 in the rugby World Cup final at Twickeham.
1992: Silent film producer Hal Roach dies aged 100.
1996: Singer Eva Cassidy, died of skin cancer aged 33.
2000: The first crew arrives at the International Space Station.
2002: Armed police arrested an international gang who were planning to kidnap former Spice Girl Victoria Beckham and her two young children.
2004: Eric Clapton received his CBE from Buckingham Palace for his services to music. On the same day, George W Bush is re-elected President of the US.
2008: McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton wins his first Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
BIRTHDAYS: Ken Rosewall, Australian tennis legend, 85; Queen Sophia of Spain, 81; Bruce Welch (Cripps), guitarist (The Shadows)/producer, 78; Stefanie Powers, actress, 77; Dave Pegg, musician (Fairport Convention/Jethro Tull) 72; kd Lang (Kathryn Dawn), singer/songwriter, 58; David Schwimmer, actor/director, 53; Samantha Womack, actress, 47; Danny Cipriani, rugby player, 30.