1272: Edward I is proclaimed king after the death of his father Henry III. It took two years for him to return to England from the Ninth Crusade.
1755: William Pitt the Elder resigns.
1805: Beethoven’s only opera “Fidelio” premieres in Vienna.
1886: Arthur Conan Doyle’s first Sherlock Holmes story “A Study In Scarlet is accepted by publisher Ward for a fee of £25.
1910: Death of novelist Leo Tolstoy aged 82.
1917: Ukraine declared a republic.
1929: Salvador Dali’s first one man show.
1936: Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange party, is executed by a republican death squad in Spain.
1940: Hungary, Slovakia and Romania join the Axis powers.
1942: The British 8th army recaptures Benghazi, Libya.
1945: Beginning of the Nuremberg war trials.
1951: Snowdonia becomes a National Park.
1960: Jack Brabham retains the Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1961: Bob Dylan began recording his debut album over two days at Columbia Studios in New York.
1962: The Soviet Union agrees to remove its bombers from Cuba and the US lifts its blockade
1965: The UN Security Council calls for a boycott of Rhodesia.
1969: Pele scores his 1,000th goal.
1974: The Who drummer Keith Moon collapsed on stage at the Cow Palace in San Francisco when someone spiked his drink with horse tranquiliser.
1975: Death of General Franco.
1976: George Harrison appears on Saturday Night Live, unaware that Paul McCartney is visiting John Lennon at the Dakota building nearby. At one point, Lennon suggested they go to the TV studios and surprise everyone. They both eventually decided against it.
1985: Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1992: Windsor Castle catches fire.
BIRTHDAYS: Joe Biden, US politician, 77; Norman Greenbaum, singer/songwriter, 77; Veronica Hamel, actress, 76; Joe Walsh, guitarist (The Eagles), 72; Gary Green, guitarist (Gentle Giant) 69; Bo Derek (Mary Collins) actress, 63; Ming Na Wen, actress, 56; Kimberley Walsh, singer (Girls Aloud), 38; Jared Followill, bass player (Kings of Leon), 33.