1220: Frederick II is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Honorius III.
1497: Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope on the first voyage from Europe to reach India.
1675: Charles II adjourns Parliament.
1719: The pirate Blackbeard (Edward Teach) dies in battle aged 38.
1794: Strasbourg Alsace-Lorraine, prohibits circumcision and the wearing of beards.
1819: Birth of author George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans) in Nuneaton.
1830: Earl Grey becomes Prime Minister of the UK.
1842: Mount St Helens in Washington erupts.
1862: Guiseppe Verdi’s opera “La Forza Del Destino” debuts at the Bolshoi Theatre in St. Petersburg.
1890: Birth of Charles de Gaulle in Lille, France.
1898: Aviator Wiley Post is born in Texas.
1899: Birth of songwriter Hoagland “Hoagy” Carmichael in Indiana.
1900: Paul Kruger, exiled President of the Boer Republic of South Africa, is given a popular welcome when he lands at Marseilles. On the same day, composer Arthur Sullivan dies aged 58.
1905: British, Italian, Russian, French and Austro-Hungarian fleet attacks the Greek island of Lesbos.
1910: Arthur Knight patents steel shaft golf clubs.
1913: Birth of composer Benjamin Britten in Lowestoft.
1914: Ypres, Belgium, is burned by German bombing.
1916: Author Jack London dies aged 40.
1918: Marshal Josef Józef Piłsudski becomes the first President (dictator) of Poland.
1922: The Labour party elects Ramsay MacDonald as leader.
1923: US President Calvin Coolidge pardons First World War German spy Lothar Witzke, who had been sentenced to death.
1924: Britain orders Egyptians out of Sudan.
1927: George Gershwin;s “Funny Face” premieres in New York.
1928: First public performance of Maurice Ravel’s “Bolero” in Paris.
1930: Elijah Muhammad forms the Nation of Islam in Detroit.
1939: Mobsters Bugsy Siegel, Whitey Krakower, Frankie Carbo and Albert Tannenbaum kill Harry “Big Greenie” Greenberg outside his apartment after he had threatened to become a police informant.
1941: British cruiser Devonshire sinks German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis.
1942: Hitler orders Rommel’s Africa Korps to fight to the last man.
1943: France officially recognises the independence of Lebanon, releasing the imprisoned Lebanese government. On the same day, the RAF begins the air bombing of Berlin.
1956: The Summer Olympic Games open in Melbourne, Australia.
1957: Singles chart:
- Mary’s Boy Child – Harry Belefonte
- Party- Elvis Presley
- That’ll Be The Day – The Crickets
- I Love You Baby – Paul Anka
- Remember You’re Mine – Pat Boone
- Be My Girl – Jim Dale
- Tammy – Debbie Reynolds
- Gotta Have Something In The Bank, Frank – Frankie Vaughan and the Kaye Sisters
- Wake Up Little Susie – The Everly Brothers
- Diana – Paul Anka
1959: Album chart:
- South Pacific – Original Soundtrack
- Cliff Sings – Cliff Richard
- Gigi – Original Soundtrack
- Family Favourites – Russ Conway
- The Student Prince/The Great Caruso – Mario Lanza
- The Best Of Sellers – Peter Sellers
- My Fair Lady – Original Broadway Cast
- Come Dance With Me – Frank Sinatra
- The Best Of The Goon Shows – The Goons
- Especially For You – Duane Eddy
1962: British Empire Games and Commonwealth Games open in Perth, Australia.
1963: President John F Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Vice president Lyndon B Johnson is sworn in as President aboard Air Force One. On the same day, author Aldous Huxley dies aged 69. Also, author C.S. Lewis dies aged 64.
1965: Bob Dylan marries Sara Lowndes in a secret ceremony on Long Island, New York. On the same day, Muhammad Ali scores 12th-round KO of Floyd Patterson to retain his world heavyweight boxing title.
1967: The UN Security council passes resolution 242 saying Israel must give back occupied land.
1968: Northern Ireland Prime Minister, Terence O’Neill announces a package of reform measures granting concessions to the Catholic minority, in response to protest movement.
1971: Five teenagers and their female instructor die in one of Scotland’s worst mountaineering accidents in the Cairngorms. On the same day, a member of the IRA is killed in a premature bomb explosion in Lurgan, Co Armagh.
1974: The UN General Assembly recognises Palestine’s right to sovereignty.
1975: Juan Carlos is proclaimed King of Spain as the monarchy is restored after 31 years. On the same day, three British Army soldiers are killed and one captured when the Provisional IRA attacks a watchtower in Drummuckavall, South Armagh.
1980: Film star Mae West dies aged 87.
1986: At 20-years old, Mike Tyson becomes the youngest heavyweight champion in history when he stops Trevor Berbick in round 2 at the Las Vegas Hilton to earn the WBC title.
1987: Jesus and Mary Chain singer Jim Reid was arrested in Canada after being accused of assaulting members of the audience with his microphone stand.
1990: Margaret Thatcher stands down as prime minister after her cabinet refuses to back her in a second round of leadership elections. On the same day, President George Bush Sr visits US troops in Saudi Arabia.
1993: Author Anthony Burgess dies aged 76.
1995: Britain’s most prolific female serial killer, Rosemary West, is sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of 10 young women and girls.
1996: Photographer Terence Donovan commits suicide aged 60.
1997: INXS singer Michael Hutchence is found dead aged 37 in his hotel room in Sydney, Australia.
2003: England win the Rugby World Cup, beating Australia 20-17 in Sydney thanks to a Johnny Wilkinson drop goal in extra time. On the same day, in Tbilisi, Georgia, opponents of President Eduard Shevardnadze seize the parliament building and demand his resignation.
2004: Ozzy Osbourne struggled with a burglar who escaped with jewellery worth about £2m from his Buckinghamshire mansion.
2005: Angela Merkel is sworn in as Germany’s first woman chancellor.
2017: Ratko Mladic the “Butcher of Bosnia” is convicted of genocide and other atrocities during the Bosnian war and jailed for life in The Hague.
BIRTHDAYS: Terry Gilliam, director/animator, 80; Tom Conti, actor, 79; Bille Jean King, tennis legend, 77; Tina Weymouth, bassist (Talking Heads/Tom Tom Club) 70; Steven Van Zandt, actor/guitarist (The E Street Band) 70; Jamie Lee Curtis, actress, 62; Mariel Hemingway, actress, 59; Mads Mikkelsen, actor, 55; Mark Ruffalo, actor, 53; Boris Becker, tennis star, 53; Karen O (Orzolek), singer, (Yeah Yeah Yeahs) 42; Scarlett Johansson, actress, 36; Marouane Fellaini, footballer, 33; Chris Smalling, footballer, 31; Katherine McNamara, actress, 25; Hailey Rhode Bieber, model, 24.