1492: Christopher Columbus first learns about growing and harvesting maize (corn) from Cuba’s indigenous population.
1605: Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes attempts to blow up King James I and the British Parliament. The plot is discovered before Fawkes can light the gunpowder.
1630: England and Spain sign a peace treaty.
1811: El Salvador’s first battle against Spain in its fight for independence.
1854: The British and French defeat a Russian force of 50,000 at Inkerman during the Crimean War.
1872: Ulysses S Grant is re-elected as US President.
1912: Woodrow Wilson is elected president of the US.
1914: Britain declares war on Turkey and annexes Cyprus.
1916: Emperors Wilhelm II of Germany and Franz Joseph I of Austro-Hungary establish the kingdom of Poland.
1925: Mussolini disbands Italian socialist parties.
1930: Sinclair Lewis wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1933: Basques vote for autonomy in Spain.
1935: Launch of the board game Monopoly.
1937: Adolf Hitler informs his military leaders in a secret meeting of his intention of going to war.
1940: Franklin D Roosevelt is re-elected president of the US for an unprecedented third term.
1943: The Vatican is bombed by an unknown sourse.
1944: Canadian and British troops liberate Dinteloord in The Netherlands.
1945: Colombia joins the United Nations.
1946: John F Kennedy is elected to the US House of Representatives.
1954: Singles chart:
- My Son My Son – Vera Lynn
- This Ole House – Rosemary Clooney
- Hold my Hand – Don Cornell
- Smile – Nat King Cole
- If I Give My Heart To You – Doris Day with The Mellomen
- This Ole House – Billie Anthony
- My Friend – Frankie Laine
- If I Give My Heart To You – Joan Regan
- Rain Rain Rain – Frankie Laine and the Four Lads
- Three Coins In The Fountain – Frank Sinatra
1956: Britain and France land airborne forces at Port Said, Egypt, escalating the Suez Crisis. On the same day, jazz pianist Art tatum dies aged 47.
1960: Country & western singer Johnny Horton is killed in a car crash.
1967: 49 people are killed when a passenger train derails between Hither Green and Grove Park Nixonin south-east London. Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees was a passenger. He was treated for shock.
1968: Richard Nixon is elected president of the US.
1971: Bolivia passes the death penalty for political kidnapping.
1972: Vice-President of Sinn Féin, Maire Drumm, is arrested in the Republic of Ireland.
1977: The manager of the Virgin record store in Nottingham, is arrested for displaying a large poster advertising the new Sex Pistols album, ‘Never Mind The Bollock’s, Here’s The Sex Pistols. High street stores banned the album after police warned they could be fined under the 1898 Indecent Advertising Act.
1978: Iran’s Prime Minister Jaffer Sharif-Emami resigns after two days of virtual mob rule.
1982: Channel 4’s music show The Tube is broadcast for the first time.
1983: The C lash drummer, Nicky “Topper” Headon, is arrested for walking his dog while drunk on London’s Fulham Road.
1984: Nicaragua’s ruling Sandinista Front claims a decisive victory in the country’s first elections since the revolution five years earlier.
1986: Bobby Nunn of vocal group The Coasters dies of heart failure in Los Angeles.
1987: TV presenter Eamon Andrews dies aged 64.
1989: McLaren driver Alain Prost withdraws early in wet Australian Grand Prix in Adelaide but wins his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1991: The body of Daily Mirror publisher, Robert Maxwell, is found in the sea off the coast of Tenerife.
1992: American chess grandmaster Bobby Fischer defeats Russian Boris Spassky to win an unofficial match in Belgrade.
1994: Space probe Ulyssus completes first passage behind the sun. On the same day, 45-year old George Foreman KOs Michael Moorer to reclaim the world boxing Heavyweight title 20 years after losing it to Muhammad Ali.
1996: Bill Clinton is re-elected President of the US.
2000: Haile Selassie is laid to rest 25 years after his death following a funeral procession through Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
- All That You Can’t Leave Behind – U2
- The Greatest Hits – Texas
- The Best Of.. – Blur
- Buzz – Steps
- Parachutes – Coldplay
- Saints & Sinners – All Saints
- White Ladder – David Gray
- The Marshall Mathers LP – Eminem
- Born To Do It – Craig David
- The Collection – Barry White
2003: Bobby Hatfield of The Righteous Brothers is found dead in his hotel room in Michigan, 30 minutes before he is due on stage, aged 63.
2005: Guitarist Link Wray dies aged 76.
2006: Saddam Hussein, former president of Iraq, and co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar are sentenced to death in the al-Dujail trial for their role in the massacre of Shi’as in 1982.
2009: US Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan kills 13 and wounds 43 at Fort Hood, Texas in the largest mass shooting ever at a US military installation.
2017: A gunman shoots 26 dead and injures 20 at a church in Sunderland Springs, Texas.
2018: NASA’s Voyager 2 probe leaves the solar system, becoming the second human-made object to reach interstellar space.
BIRTHDAYS: Lester Piggott, jockey, 85; Elke Sommer (Schletz), actress, 80; Art Garfunkel, singer/actor, 79; Peter Noone, singer (Herman’s Hermits) 73; Peter Hammill, singer-songwriter/musician (Van der Graaf Generator) 72; Kris Jenner, American TV personality, 65; Robert Patrick, actor, 62; Bryan Adams, singer-songwriter/guitarist, 61; Tilda Swinton, actress, 60; Tatum O’Neal, actress, 57; Famke Janssen, actress/director, 55; Sam Rockwell, actor, 52; Tamzin Outhwaite, actress, 50; Johnny Grenwood, musician/composer (Radiohead) 49; Daniella Westbrook, actress, 47; Ryan Adams, singer-songwriter, 46; Lisa Scott-Lee, singer (Steps) 45; Luke Hemsworth, actor, 40; Alexa Chung, TV presenter/model, 37; Kasper Schmeichel, goalkeeper, 34; Kevin Jonas, musician/actor, 33; Virat Kohli, cricketer, 32.