1492: Christopher Columbus first learns about growing and harvesting maize (corn) from Cuba’s indigenous population.
1605: Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes attempts to blow up King James I and the British Parliament. The plot is discovered before Fawkes can light the gunpowder.
1630: England and Spain sign a peace treaty.
1811: El Salvador’s first battle against Spain in its fight for independence.
1854: The British and French defeat a Russian force of 50,000 at Inkerman during the Crimean War.
1872: Ulysses S Grant is re-elected as US President.
1912: Woodrow Wilson is elected president of the US.
1914: Britain declares war on Turkey and annexes Cyprus.
1916: Emperors Wilhelm II of Germany and Franz Joseph I of Austro-Hungary establish the kingdom of Poland.
1925: Mussolini disbands Italian socialist parties.
1930: Sinclair Lewis wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1933: Basques vote for autonomy in Spain.
1935: Launch of the board game Monopoly.
1937: Adolf Hitler informs his military leaders in a secret meeting of his intention of going to war.
1940: Franklin D Roosevelt is re-elected president of the US for an unprecedented third term.
1943: The Vatican is bombed by an unknown sourse.
1944: Canadian and British troops liberate Dinteloord in The Netherlands.
1945: Colombia joins the United Nations.
1946: John F Kennedy is elected to the US House of Representatives.
1956: Britain and France land airborne forces at Port Said, Egypt, escalating the Suez Crisis. On the same day, jazz pianist Art tatum dies aged 47.
1960: Country & western singer Johnny Horton is killed in a car crash.
1967: 49 people are killed when a passenger train derails between Hither Green and Grove Park in south-east London. Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees was a passenger. He was treated for shock.
1968: Richard Nixon is elected president of the US.
1971: Bolivia passes the death penalty for political kidnapping.
1972: Vice-President of Sinn Féin, Maire Drumm, is arrested in the Republic of Ireland.
1977: The manager of the Virgin record store in Nottingham, is arrested for displaying a large poster advertising the new Sex Pistols album, ‘Never Mind The Bollock’s, Here’s The Sex Pistols. High street stores banned the album after police warned they could be fined under the 1898 Indecent Advertising Act.
1978: Iran’s Prime Minister Jaffer Sharif-Emami resigns after two days of virtual mob rule.
1982: Channel 4’s music show The Tube is broadcast for the first time.
1983: The C lash drummer, Nicky “Topper” Headon, is arrested for walking his dog while drunk on London’s Fulham Road.
1984: Nicaragua’s ruling Sandinista Front claims a decisive victory in the country’s first elections since the revolution five years earlier.
1986: Bobby Nunn of vocal group The Coasters dies of heart failure in Los Angeles.
1987: TV presenter Eamon Andrews dies aged 64.
1989: McLaren driver Alain Prost withdraws early in wet Australian Grand Prix in Adelaide but wins his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1991: The body of Daily Mirror publisher, Robert Maxwell, is found in the sea off the coast of Tenerife.
1992: American chess grandmaster Bobby Fischer defeats Russian Boris Spassky to win an unofficial match in Belgrade.
1994: Space probe Ulysses completes its first passage behind the sun. On the same day, 45-year old George Foreman KOs Michael Moorer to reclaim the world boxing Heavyweight title 20 years after losing it to Muhammad Ali.
1995: Singles chart:
- I Believe/Up On The Roof – Robson and Jerome
- Wonderwall – Oasis
- Gangsta’s Paradise – Coolio ft LV
- Heaven For Everyone – Queen
- Thunder – East 17
- Missing – Everything But The Girl
- I’d Lie For You (And That’s The Truth) – Meat Loaf
- You’ll See – Madonna
- Fairground – Simply Red
- When Love & Hate Collide – Def Leppard
- Different Class – Pulp
- (What’s The Story) Morning Glory – Oasis
- Welcome To The Neighbourhood – Meat Loaf
- Life – Simply Red
- Vault: Greatest Hits 1980-1995 – Def Leppard
- Power Of A Woman – Eternal
- Design Of A Decade – Janet Jackson
- Don’t Bore Us, Get To The Chorus – Roxette
- Stanley Road – Paul Weller
- The Very Best Of – Robert Palmer
1996: Bill Clinton is re-elected President of the US.
2000: Haile Selassie is laid to rest 25 years after his death following a funeral procession through Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
2003: Bobby Hatfield of The Righteous Brothers is found dead in his hotel room in Michigan, 30 minutes before he is due on stage, aged 63.
2005: Guitarist Link Wray dies aged 76.
2006: Saddam Hussein, former president of Iraq, and co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar are sentenced to death in the al-Dujail trial for their role in the massacre of Shi’as in 1982.
2009: US Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan kills 13 and wounds 43 at Fort Hood, Texas in the largest mass shooting ever at a US military installation.
2017: A gunman shoots 26 dead and injures 20 at a church in Sunderland Springs, Texas.
2018: NASA’s Voyager 2 probe leaves the solar system, becoming the second human-made object to reach interstellar space. On the same day, more than 80 students and teachers are kidnapped from a boarding school in Bamenda, Cameroon.
2019: In an interview with Vogue, actress Emma Watson describes herself as “self partnered.”
BIRTHDAYS: Lester Piggott, jockey, 86; Elke Sommer (Schletz), actress, 81; Art Garfunkel, singer/actor, 80; Peter Noone, singer (Herman’s Hermits) 74; Peter Hammill, singer-songwriter/musician (Van der Graaf Generator) 73; Kris Jenner, American TV personality, 66; Robert Patrick, actor, 63; Bryan Adams, singer-songwriter/guitarist, 62; Tilda Swinton, actress, 61; Tatum O’Neal, actress, 58; Famke Janssen, actress/director, 56; Sam Rockwell, actor, 53; Tamzin Outhwaite, actress, 51; Johnny Grenwood, musician/composer (Radiohead) 50; Daniella Westbrook, actress, 48; Ryan Adams, singer-songwriter, 47; Lisa Scott-Lee, singer (Steps) 46; Luke Hemsworth, actor, 41; Alexa Chung, TV presenter/model, 38; Kasper Schmeichel, goalkeeper, 35; Kevin Jonas, musician/actor, 34; Virat Kohli, cricketer, 33.