1528: Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca becomes first known European to set foot in Texas.
1796: Death of Catherine The Great, Empress of Russia, aged 67.
1844: Spain grants independence to the Dominican Republic.
1860: Abraham Lincoln is elected president of the US.
1861: Jefferson Davis is elected to a six-year term as president of the US Confederacy.
1865: CSS Shenandoah is the last Confederate combat unit to surrender in the American Civil War.
1878: Henrik Ibsem’s “Samfundets Stotter” premieres in Oslo.
1884: Southeast New Guinea is proclaimed a British protectorate.
1888: Benjamin Harrison is elected president of the US.
1893: Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky dies aged 53.
1900: William McKinley is elected president of the US.
1903: The US recognizes the independence of Panama.
1913: Mahatma Gandhi is arrested for leading an Indian miners’ march in South Africa.
1917: The Bolshevik revolution begins in Russia with the bombardment of the Winter Palace in Petrograd. On the same day, New York State adopts a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote in state elections.
1918: On the Western Front, Germany retreats as French and American troops cross the Meuse and move to take Sedan. On the same day, the republic of Poland is proclaimed.
1919: Silent movie idol Rudolph Valentino marries lesbian actress Jean Acker, but the marriage is never consummated with Valentino locked out of the bedroom on his wedding night.
1925: British secret agent Sidney Reilly (‘Ace of Spies’) is executed by the OGPU, the secret police of the Soviet Union.
1928: Herbert Hoover is elected president of the US.
1936: Terence Rattigan’s “French Without Tears” premieres in London.
1942: Nazis kill 12,000 Jews in the Minsk ghetto.
1943: Soviet forces reconquer Kiev.
1949: The Greek civil war ends after three years with defeat of the communist factions.
1950: King Tribhuvana of Nepal flees to India.
1956: British and French troops seize control of two major ports in Egypt’s Suez Canal Zone and declare a ceasefire. On the same day, The Netherlands and Spain withdraw from the Olympics in protest against Soviet actions in Hungary.
1959: Singles chart:
- Travellin’ Light – Cliff Richard and The Shadows
- Mack The Knife – Bobby Darin
- Sea Of Love – Marty Wilde
- Red River Rock – Johnny and The Hurricaines
- (‘Til) I Kissed You – The Everly Brothers
- High Hopes – Frank Sinatra
- What Do You Want To Make Those Eyes At Me For – Emile Ford and the Checkmates
- The Three Bells – The Browns
- Put Your Head On My Shoulder – Paul Anka
- Broken Hearted Melody – Sarah Vaughan
1960: Album chart:
- South Pacific – Original Soundtrack
- Me And My Shadows – Cliff Richard and The Shadows
- Elvis Is Back – Elvis Presley
- Oklahoma! – Original Soundtrack
- Down Drury Lane To Memory Lane – 101 Strings
- Oliver! – Original London Cast
- The Buddy Holly Story Vol 2 – Buddy Holly
- Swing Easy – Frank Sinatra
- The Fabulous Style Of The Everly Brothers – The Everly Brothers
- Can Can – Original Soundtrack
1962: Saudi Arabia proclaims the abolition of slavery. On the same day, the UN General Assembly adopts a resolution condemning South Africa.
1965: Musique concrete composer Edgard Varèse, dies aged 81.
1967: During one three-hour session, Bob Dylan records All Along The Watchtower and John Wesley Harding at Columbia Recording Studios in Nashville. On the same day at EMI Studios in Abbey Road, London, The Beatles mixed Hello Goodbye, Your Mother Should Know, Magical Mystery Tour and I Am The Walrus.
1972: During a UK tour, drummer Billy Murcia of The New York Dolls dies from choking on his coffee after an overdose of Mandrax.
1973: Roadies Michael Martin and Phil Kaufman are charged and fined $300 each for the theft of a coffin containing the body of Gram Parsons. The court heard that the two men were merely carrying out the singer’s wishes to be cremated in the desert.
1975: The Sex Pistols make their live debut at St Martin’s School Of Art in central London. Their set lasts 10 minutes.
1978: The Shah of Iran places the country under military rule.
1979: Ayatollah Khomeini takes over in Iran.
1984: Ronald Reagan is re-elected president of the US.
1986: A Chinook helicopter carrying oil rig workers plunges into the North Sea off the coast of Scotland, killing 45 of the 47 people on board.
1991: Russian president Boris Yeltsin outlaws the communist party. On the same day, the last oil fire in Kuwait set by retreating Iraqi troops is extinguished.
1993: Evander Holyfield beats Riddick Bowe in 12 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
1996: Football legend Tommy Lawton dies aged 80.
1999: Australians reject a proposal to break ties with the British monarchy and become a republic. On the same day, Australia beats France, 35-12, to win the Rugby World Cup at the Millennium Stadium, Cardiff.
2001: Dramatist Anthony Shaffer, dies aged 75.
2002: 12 people are killed in a fire on board a train headed for Vienna from Paris.
2012: Barack Obama is re-elected president of the US. On the same day, Dad’s Army actor Clive Dunn dies aged 92.
2016: The Indian government declares levels of air pollution in Delhi an emergency, closing schools and construction sites.
2018: ELO cellist Hugh McDowell died of cancer on aged 65.
BIRTHDAYS: P. J. Proby (James Marcus Smith), singer, 82; Sally Field, actress, 74; Jim Rosenthal, sports presenter, 73; Nigel Havers, actor, 71; Chris Glen, bassist, (The Sensational Alex Harvey Band) 70; Ethan Hawke, actor/author, 50; Rebecca Romijn, actress, 48; Thandie Newton, actress, 48; Nell McAndrew, model, 47; Emma (Emily) Stone, actress, 32.