331BC: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela.
959: Edgar I, the Peaceful, becomes king of all England.
1189: Gerard de Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar, is killed at the Siege of Acre.
1207: Henry III is born in Winchester Castle.
1569: The Duke of Norfolk is arrested for conspiring to marry Mary Queen of Scots.
1688: Prince Willem III of Orange accepts an invitation of take up the British crown.
1746: Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to France.
1795: Belgium is conquered by France.
1800: Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
1843: The News of the World begins publication.
1867: “Das Kapital” by Karl Marx is published.
1868: “Little Women” by Louisa May Alcott is published.
1869: The first postcards are issued in Vienna.
1887: Balochistan, (part of Pakistan) is conquered by the British Empire.
1895: Romanians in Costantinople are massacred.
1904: The Netherlands and Portugal lay down boundaries splitting the island of Timor in two.
1918: Arab forces under T E Lawrence capture Damascus.
1926: An oil field accident costs aviator Wiley Post his left eye. He uses the settlement money to buy his first airplane.
1931: The Spanish Cortes accepts female suffrage.
1932: Oswald Mosley forms the British Union of Fascists.
1934: Adolf Hitler expands the German army and navy, violating the Treaty of Versailles.
1936: Generalissimo Franco establishes the state of Spain.
1938: Germany annexes Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia) following the Munich Agreement.
1939: Winston Churchill calls Russia a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma”.
1943: Allied forces capture Naples.
1945: World heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis is discharged from the US army after being awarded the Legion of Merit.
1949: The People’s Republic of China is proclaimed by Mao Zedong.
1950: South Korean troops cross the 38th parallel into North Korea.
1956: After test audiences gave a negative reaction to Elvis Presley dying at the end of his first film Love Me Tender, The King was called back to re-shoot the scene. In the new ending, he lived.
1957: A vaccine against the strain of influenza sweeping around the world is made available to the British public.
1958: Britain transfers Christmas Island to Australia. On the same day, US space agency NASA begins operations.
1960: Nigeria gains independence from Britain and becomes the 99th member of the United Nations.
1961: A volcanco believed to be extinct erupts on Tristan da Cunha.
1962: Two people die and at least 75 are injured in rioting following the admission of black student James Meredith to the University of Mississippi. President Kennedy had sent 3,000 troops to ensure that the integration went ahead. On the same day, Brian Epstein signs a contract to manage Beatles for five years.
1963: Nigeria becomes a republic.
1966: Jimi Hendrix appeared live for the first time in the UK when he jammed with Cream at London Polytechnic.
1969: Concorde 001 test flight breaks the sound barrier.
1970: Dozens are crushed in crowded Cairo streets as millions of Egyptians mourn at the funeral of President Abdel Nasser. On the same day, Jimi Hendrix was buried at The Greenwood Cemetery at the Dunlop Baptist Church, Seattle.
1971: Walt Disney World opens in Bay Lake, Florida.
1972: Singles chart:
- How Can I Be Sure – David Cassidy
- Children Of The Revolution – T Rex
- Mouldy Old Dough – Lt Pigeon
- Wig Wam Bam – The Sweet
- Too Young – Donny Osmond
- You’re A Lady – Peter Skellern
- Mama Weer All Crazee Now – Slade
- I Didn’t Know I Loved You (Til I Saw You Rock n Roll) – Gary Glitter
- It’s Four In The Morning – Faron Young
- Come On Over To My Place – The Drifters
- 20 All Time Greats Of The 50s – Various Artists
- 20 Fantastic Hits – Various Artists
- Catch Bull At Four – Cat Stevens
- Greatest Hits – Simon and Garfunkel
- Never A Dull Moment – Rod Stewart
- Dingly Dell – Lindesfarne
- Close To The Edge – Yes
- Black Sabbath Vol 4 – Black Sabbath
- Slade Alive – Slade
- Cherish – David Cassidy
1974: The Watergate cover-up trial opens in Washington, D.C.
1975: Muhammad Ali retains the world heavyweight boxing championship after defeating Joe Frazier in their third fight, dubbed the Thrilla in Manilla. On the same day, Al Jackson, drummer for Booker T. And The MGs, was shot and killed by a burglar at his home in Memphis. Also, Britain grants internal self-government to The Seychelles and the Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, taking the name “Tuvalu”.
1977: Pele plays his last game for New York Cosmos in an exhibition match against his boyhood club Santos of Brazil.
1978: Tuvalu declares independence from the UK.
1980: Cosmonauts Ryumin & Popov break the space endurance record of 176 days.
1982: The EPCOT Centre opens in Orlando, Florida. On the same day, West Germany’s Christian Democrat Union ousts Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor, replacing him with Helmut Kohl. Also, the Sony CDP-101, the world’s first commercially available Compact Disc player, is released in Japan.
1985: Riots break out in Toxteth, Liverpool and Peckham, south London. On the same day, an Israeli air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis kills 68 people.
1986: Andy McVann drummer with Liverpool band The Farm was killed in a car crash during a police chase.
1987: An earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale in Los Angeles kills 6 people.
1988: Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. On the same day, Florence Griffith Joyner wins her third gold medal of the Seoul Olympics anchoring the victorious US 4 x 100m relay team.
1989: Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany.
1990: A meteorite explodes over the Pacific Ocean. On the same day, Serbs in Croatia proclaim autonomy.
1993: Lennox Lewis retains his WBC heavyweight boxing title, beating Frank Bruno in Round 7 at the National Stadium in Cardiff.
1995: Benneton driver Michael Schumacher wins the Pacific Grand Prix at the TI Circuit in Aida, Japan, to clinch his second straight Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1998: Vladimir Putin becomes a permanent member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.
1999: Child star Lena Zavaroni died aged 35 after a long battle with anorexia.
2000: Gangster Reggie Kray dies from cancer aged 66.
2002: James Blunt left the British army having served six years in the cavalry regiment. He was part of the first peacekeeping force to go into Kosovo in 1999.
2005: Three suicide bomb attacks on Bali leave 19 plus the bombers dead.
2007: The Spice Girls London reunion concert sold out in 38 seconds. Also on this day, Radiohead’s website crashed after the band announced that their new album ‘In Rainbows’ would only be available to order via www.radiohead.com at whatever price they chose.
2013: A partial United States federal government shutdown occurs as a result of political disagreements over operational spending. On the same day, author Tom Clancy dies aged 66.
2014: 41 children are killed by a suicide bombing on the Akrameh al-Makhzumi school in Homs, Syria. On the same day, singer-songwriter Lynsey de Paul dies from a brain hemorrhage at 66.
2015: An original tape of The Beatles playing at The Cavern in 1962 was found after languishing in a desk drawer for more than 50 years. On the same day, a mudslide on the outskirts of Guatemala City leaves at least 131 dead and 300 missing.
2017: Stephen Paddock shoots dead 58 people, injuring 489, at a concert in Las Vegas in the deadliest mass shooting in American history. On the same day, Catalonia holds an independence referendum on seceding from Spain. Also, O J Simpson is released from Nevada’s Lovelock Prison after less than nine years of a 33-year sentence for armed robbery and kidnapping.
2018: French singer/actor Charles Aznavour is found dead in a bathtub at his home at Mouriès at the age of 94.
2019: Indian government bans the export of onions, causing shortages in Bangladesh and Pakistan. On the same day, presidential candidate Bernie Sanders suffers a heart attack and former Dallas police Officer Amber Guyger is found guilty of murdering her black neighbour in his apartment in a landmark case on the use of police force and racial bias. Also, newsreader Peter Sissons dies aged 77.
BIRTHDAYS: Jimmy Carter, former US president, 96; Sandy Gall, journalist, 93; Julie Andrews, actress, 85; Jerry Martini, saxophonist, (Sly & The Family Stone) 73; Rob Davis, guitarist (Mud), songwriter , 73; Martin Turner, guitarist (Wishbone Ash), 73; Randy Quaid, actor, 70; Howard Hewett, singer (Shalamar), 65; Theresa May, politician, 64; Youssou N’dour, singer, 61; Harry Hill, comedian, 56; George Weah, footballer/president of Liberia, 54; Zach Galifianakis, actor/comedian, 51; Keith Duffy, vocals, (Boyzone), actor 46; Dizzee Rascal (Dylan Kwabena Mills), rapper 35; Brie Larson (Brianne Sidonie Desaulniers), actress, 31.