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331BC: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela.
1207: Henry III born in Winchester Castle.
1746: Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to France.
1843: The News of the World newspaper begins publication.
1867: Das Kapital by Karl Marx is published.
1908: Henry Ford introduces the Model T.
1932: Oswald Moseley forms the British Union of Fascists.
1938: Germany annexes the Sudetenland following the signing of the Munich Agreement.
1939: Winston Churchill describes Russia as “a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.”
1949: The People’s Republic of China is declared by Mao Zedong.
1950: South Korean troops cross the 38th Parallel into North Korea.
1952: Britain carries out its first atom bomb test on Monte Bello island.
1958: The US space agency NASA begins operations.
1960: Nigeria gains independence from Britain
1961: A volcanco believed to be extinct erupts in Tristan da Cunha
1962: Barbra Streisand signs her first recording contract with Columbia.
1966: Jimi Hendrix appeared live for the first time in the UK when he jammed with Cream at their gig at London Polytechnic.
1970: Jimi Hendrix was buried at The Greenwood Cemetery at the Dunlop Baptist Church, Seattle.
1971: Disneyworld opens in Florida.
1974: The Watergate cover up trial begins in Washington.
1975: Muhammad Ali stops Joe Frazier in 14 rounds to retain his World Heavyweight title in Manilla. On the same day, the drummer with Booker T and the MGs, Al Jackson, was fatally shot in his home by raiders.
1977: Pele retires from playing football.
1982: West Germany’s Christian Democrat Union ousts Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor, replacing him with Helmut Kohl.
1986: Andy McVann drummer with Liverpool band The Farm was killed in a car crash during a police chase.
1988: Mikhail Gorbachev becomes head of state of the Soviet Union.
1993: Lennox Lewis defeats Frank Bruno in his first defence of the WBO world heavyweight title in Cardiff.
1999: Child star Lena Zavaroni dies aged 35 after a long battle with anorexia.
2000: Death of Reggie Kray.
2002: James Blunt leaves the British Army.
2005: A terrorist bomb in Bali kills 23 people.
2015: A mudslide on the outskirts of Guatemala City leaves at least 131 dead and 300 missing.
BIRTHDAYS: Jimmy Carter, former US president, 95; Dame Julie Andrews, actress, 84; Jerry Martini, musician (Sly & The Family Stone), 76; Martin Turner, musician (Wishbone Ash) 72; Randy Quaid, actor, 69; John Hegley, poet, 66; Theresa May, politician, 63; Harry Hill, comedian, 55; Zach Galifanakis, actor/comedian, 50; Keith Duffy, singer (Boyzone), 45, Dizzee Rascal (Dylan Mills), rapper, 34; Brie Larson, actress, 30.