1138: An earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, kills an estimated 230,000.
1521: Pope Leo X titles Henry VIII “Defender of the Faith”.
1698: France, England and The Netherlands ratify the First Partition Treaty, which eventually leads to the War of Spanish Succession.
1726: Benjamin Franklin returns to Philadelphia from England.
1737: An earthquake destroys half of Calcutta, killing 300,000.
1746: The French defeat British, Austrian and Dutch armies at the Battle of Rocoux.
1797: The British navy defeats the Dutch fleet at the Battle of Camperdown.
1864: Slavery is abolished in Maryland.
1881: David Houston patents roll film for cameras.
1895: Emperor Menelik II of Abyssinia rejects a treaty with Italy.
1896: Death of Austrian composer Anton Bruckner, aged 72.
1899: South African Boers declare war on Britain.
1914: German troops occupy Ghent in Belgium.
1922: Alaska Davidson becomes the first female FBI “special investigator”.
1925: Birth of writer Elmore Leonard in New Orleans.
1929: Sean O’Casey’s “Silver Tassle” premieres in London.
1939: Albert Einstein informs President Roosevelt of the possibilities of an atomic bomb.
1945: The Chinese civil war begins between the Kuomintang government led by Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong’s communists.
1961: Comedian Chico (Leonard) Marx dies aged 74.
1963: French singer Edith Piaf dies of liver cancer aged 47. On the same day, French poet and writer Jean Cocteau dies aged 73.
1968: During a Beatles recording session at Abbey Road six saxophonists record parts for ‘Savoy Truffle’ for the forthcoming White Album. Against producer George Martin’s wishes, writer George Harrison insists on adding high-end EQ to the part so that it distorts. On the same day, a coup d’état in Panama against President Arnulfo Arias.
1969: Blues artist Muddy Waters is involved in a car crash that kills three people. On the same day, Three people shot dead during street violence in the loyalist Shankill area of Belfast.
1973: Héctor José Cámpora is elected President of Argentina.
1975: Bill and Hilary Clinton marry in Arkansas.
1976: The new head of the Chinese communist party, Hua Goufeng, snuffs out a coup led by Chairman Mao’s widow Jiang Qing and three others, known as the Gang Of Four.
1978: Aristides Royo is elected president of Panama.
1982: The Mary Rose, flagship of Henry VIII, is brought to the surface after 437 years at the bottom of the Solent.
1985: President Reagan bans the import of South African Krugerrands to the USA.
1986: US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev open talks at a summit in Reykjavik, Iceland.
1987: A huge sonar exploration of Loch Ness fails to find the monster.
1990: Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd says force will be used if Iraq does not withdraw from Kuwait. On the same day, drummer Dave Grohl plays his first gig with Nirvana at the North Shore Surf Club in Olympia.
1998: Singles chart:
- Girlfriend – Billie
- Rollercoaster – B*witched
- Gangster Trippin – Fatboy Slim
- I Don’t Want To Miss A Thing – Aerosmith
- Smoke – Natalie Imbruglia
- The First Night – Monica
- Perfect 10 – The Beautiful South
- Top Of The World – Brandy ft Mase
- Sex On The Beach – T-Spoon
- Doo Wop (That Thing) – Lauryn Hill
- Hits – Phil Collins
- The Star And Wiseman: Best Of.. – Ladysmith Black Mambazo
- Songs From Ally McBeal – Vonda Shepard
- Talk On Corners – The Corrs
- This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours – Manic Street Preachers
- Savage Garden – Savage Garden
- Nu-Clear Sounds – Ash
- Where We Belong – Boyzone
- The Miseducation Of… – Lauryn Hill
- Life Thru A Lens – Robbie Williams
2000: The South African Cricket Board issues former captain Hansie Cronje with a lifetime ban as a result of match-fixing allegations.
2010: George Michael is released from Highpoint Prison in Suffolk, after serving four of an eight week sentence for driving under the influence of drugs.
2013: 27 people die when a migrant boat sinks in the Channel of Sicily.
2016: Rod Stewart is knighted by the Duke of Cambridge at Buckingham Palace. On the same day, Samsung announces it will permanently stop production of Note 7 phones after complaints of devices catching fire.
2018: A Russian Soyuz spacecraft makes an emergency landing when the rocket fails two minutes after lift-off.
2019: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed for the peace deal with Eritrea. On the same day, Alexei Leonov, Russian cosmonaut and first man to walk in space, dies aged 85.
BIRTHDAYS: Sir Bobby Charlton, footballer, 83; Rodney Marsh, footballer, 76; Daryl Hall, singer-songwriter, 74; Dawn French, comedian/actress, 63; Joan Cusack, actress, 58; Jane Krakowski, actress, 52; Emily Deschanel, actress, 44; Cardi B (Belcalis Almanzar) rapper, 28.