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1520: Henry VIII orders bowling lanes at Whitehall.
1705: The English fleet under Lord Peterborough occupies Barcelona.
1815: Napoleon Bonaparte arrives on the island of St Helena to begin his exile.
1866: The Great Fire of Quebec destroys 2,500 houses.
1880: Cologne Cathedral is finally completed after 633 years.
1905: Claude Debussy’s La Mer premiers in Paris.
1917: Exotic dancer Mata Hari (Margaretha Geertruida Zelle) is executed by firing squad at Vincennes for spying for Germany.
1924: President Calvin Coolidge declares the Statue of Liberty a national monument.
1940: 400 people are killed in a heavy German air raid on London. On the same day, Charlie Chaplin’s film The Great Dictator is released.
1941: Hideki Tojo is appointed prime minister of Japan.
1946: Nazi Reichmarshal Hermann Goering commits suicide in prison.
1951: The first oral contraceptive is synthesised at Mexican drug company Syntex.
1954: Hurricane Hazel kills 195 people in the US and Canada.
1964: Death of songwriter Cole Porter aged 73.
1966: The Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.
1967: The world’s then tallest statue, The Motherland Calls, is completed in Volvograd, Russia.
1968: British athlete David Hemery sets a world record 48.12s to win the gold medal in the men’s 400m hurdles at the Mexico Olympics.
1973: Keith Riahcrds was found guilty of trafficking cannabis by a court in Nice. The Rolling Stones guitarist was given a one-year suspended sentence, a 5,000 franc fine and was banned from entering France for two years.
1985: The space shuttle Columbia carries Spacelab into orbit.
1987: The biggest storm in modern times hits England, killing 23 people.
1990: Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
1993: Nelson Mandela and South Agfrican president F W de Clerk are both awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
2003: China launches its first manned space mission.
2012: The King of Cambodia dies of a heart attack aged 89.
2017: Wildfires occur in Portugal and Northern Spain fanned by winds from Hurricane Ophelia, killing at least 35 people.
BIRTHDAYS: Richard Carpenter, musician, 73; Chris de Burgh, musician, 69; Roscoe Tanner, former tennis player, 68; Peter Richardson, actor/writer/director, 68; Tito Jackson, singer, 66; Duchess of York (Sarah Ferguson) 60, Didier Deschamps, former footballer/manager 51; Dominic West, actor, 50; Shayne Ward, actor/singer, 34; Mesut Ozil, footballer, 31.