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1384: Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, despite being a woman.
1710: British troops occupies Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
1757: Austrian troops occupy Berlin.
1758: Birth of lexicographer Noah Webster in Connecticut.
1793: Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, is beheaded aged 37.
1813: Napoleon’s forces are defeated by Prussia, Austria and Russia at the Battle of Leipzig.
1834: Much of the ancient structures of the Palace of Westminster burn down.
1846: Dentist William T Morton demonstrates the effectiveness of ether.
1847: Charlotte Bronte’s Jayne Eyre is published.
1854: Birth of Oscar Wilde (Fingal O’Flahertie Wills) in Dublin.
1905: The Partition of Bengal.
1913: George Bernard Shaw’s play “Pygmalion” premieres at the Hofburg Theatre in Vienna.
1915: Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria.
1916: Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the US in Brooklyn, New York.
1934: Mao Zedong and 25,000 troops begin their 6,000 mile Long March from the south of China to the north and west.
1936: Aviatrix Jean Batten reaches Auckland, New Zealand after flying solo from Kent in a record 11 days and 45 minutes.
1942: A cyclone in the Bay of Bengal kills 40,000 south of Calcutta.
1946: 10 Nazi leaders are hanged as war criminals after the Nuremberg war trials, including Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop and Alfred Jodl.
1950: “The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe” by C S Lewis is published.
1951: 18 year old Richard Penniman, who was already using the stage name Little Richard, makes his first recordings for RCA Camden at the studios of Atlanta radio station WGST. On the same day, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, is assassinated in Rawalpindi.
1953: Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro is sentenced to 15 years imprisonment in Havana.
1555: Hugh Latimer, bishop and royal chaplain, is burned at the stake aged 80.
1957: The US Air Force sends two aluminium bullets into space.
1962: Beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis as President John F Kennedy is shown photos confirming the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba.
1963:Two secret US military satellites are launched from Cape Canaveral.
1964: Harold Wilson becomes prime minister as Labour wins the general election.
1965: The Beatles record Day Tripper at EMI Studios, Abbey Road, in just three takes, adding vocals and overdubs before the end of the session.
1966: Album chart:
- The Sound Of Music – Original Soundtrack
- Revolver – The Beatles
- Pet Sounds – The Beach Boys
- Going Places – Herb Alpert & The Tijuana Brass
- Portrait – The Walker Brothers
- Well Respected Kinks
- Autumn ’66 – The Spencer Davis Group
- Sinatra At The Sands – Frank Sinatra
- Stars Charity Fantasia – Various Artists
- Bluesbreakers – John Mayall and The Bluesbreakers
1967: Folk singer Joan Baez is arrested, along with 123 others, for blocking the entrance to an Armed Forces Induction Centre in Oakland, California in protest at the war in Vietnam.
1968: Founder of the Chess record label, Leonard Chess, dies of a heart attack aged 52. On the same day, China reports the removal of president Li Sjao-tji and at the Olympics in Mexico, Americans Tommie Smith (gold) and John Carlos (bronze) give the Black Power salute on the 200m medal podium.
1973: US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho are controversially awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam that later failed. On the same day, Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar unilaterally raise the posted price of Saudi Light marker crude-oil by 17 per cent. Also, jazz drummer Gene Krupa dies aged 64.
1974: Rioting prisoners set fire to the Long Kesh Maze prison near Belfast.
1978: Cardinals at the Vatican choose the first non-Italian Pope for more than 400 years. He is Karol Wojtyla, Archbishop of Krakow in Poland who takes the title Pope John Paul II.
1979: Comedy sketch show “Not the Nine O’Clock News” debuts on BBC2, starring Rowan Atkinson, Mel Smith, Chris Langham and Pamela Stephenson.
1984: Archbishop Desmond Tutu wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
1986: The US government shuts down due to disputes between President Ronald Reagan and the House of Representatives.
1987: Southern Britain begins a massive clear-up operation after the worst night of storms in living memory resulting in 18 deaths. On the same day, Mike Tyson TKOs Tyrell Biggs in Round 7 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1990: Death of jazz drummer Art Blakey, aged 71.
1993: General Omar al-Bashir is appointed president of Sudan. On the same day, 10 people are killed in an IRA bomb attack on a fish & chips restaurant in Belfast.
1994: Actor Raul Julia suffers a stroke.
1996: Eighty-four people are killed and more than 180 injured as 47,000 football fans attempt to squeeze into the 36,000-seat Estadio Mateo Flores in Guatemala City.
1998: Former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a Spanish warrant requesting his extradition on murder charges.
2001: Two security guards are sacked after refusing to allow Bob Dylan into his own concert because he didn’t have a pass.
2004: 17-year old Lionel Messi makes his league debut for Barcelona against Espanyol.
2005: Renault driver Fernando Alonso wins the season-ending Chinese Grand Prix at Shanghai International Circuit to become the first Spanish Formula 1 Drivers Champion.
2007: Death of actress Deborah Kerr aged 86.
2011: Singles chart:
- We Found Love – Rihanna Ft Calvin Harris
- Moves Like Jagger – Maroon 5 Ft Christina Aguilera
- Stereo Hearts – Gym Class Heroes Ft Adam Levine
- Jar Of Hearts – Christina Perri
- Sexy And I Know It – LMFAO
- Run For Your Life – Matt Cardle
- Wherever You Will Go – Charlene Soraia
- Loca People – Sak Noel
- The A Team – Ed Sheeran
- What Makes You Beautiful – One Direction
2013: The US ends a 16-day government shut down and avoids default in a bi-partisan deal in the Senate.
2017: Comedian/author Sean Hughes dies aged 51.
2018: The Duke and Duchess of Sussex begin their first royal tour visiting Australia and New Zealand.
BIRTHDAYS: Angela Lansbury, actress, 95; Peter Bowles, actor, 84; Bob Weir, guitarist (The Grateful Dead) 73; Tim Robbins, actor, 62; Gary Kemp, guitarist/songwriter (Spandau Ballet/Nick Mason’s Saucerful Of Secrets) 61; Bob Mould, musician, 60; Flea (Michael Balzary), bassist (Red Hot Chilli Peppers) 58; Steve Lamacq, DJ, 56; Davina McCall, TV presenter, 53; John Mayer, guitarist/singer-songwriter, 43; Caterina Scorsone, actress, 39; Naomi Osaka, tennis star, 23.