1216: Death of King John.
1466: The Thirteen Years’ War ends with the Second Peace of Thorn.
1512: Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology.
1739: England declares war on Spain.
1745: Death of author Jonathan Swift.
1781: The American Revolution ends as Gen Charles Cornwallis signs the terms of surrender to George Washington at Yorktown.
1812: Napoleon’s forces begin their retreat from Moscow.
1845: Wagner’s opera “Tannhäuser” premieres in Dresden.
1901: Edward Elgar’s “Pomp & Circumstance March” premieres in Liverpool.
1915: Russia and Italy declare war on Bulgaria.
1921: Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians are murdered in a Lisbon coup.
1926: Leon Trotsky is thrown out of the Russian Politburo.
1951: President Truman formally ends the state of war with Germany.
1954: British troops depart from Egypt.
1960: Martin Luther King is arrested at a sit-in demonstration in Atlanta.
1969: Jackie Stewart wins his first Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1983: Maurice Bishop, premier of Grenada, is murdered in a coup
1987: Black Monday: Stock markets around the world crash.
1988: Britain bans broadcast interviews with IRA members.
1991: Noel Gallagher’s first gig with Oasis at The Boardwalk in Manchester.
2004: Singer songwriter Elliott Smith commits suicide.
2005: Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
BIRTHDAYS: John Le Carre (David Cornwell) author, 88; Michael Gambon, actor, 79; John Lithgow, actor, 74; Patrick Simmons, musician (Doobie Brothers) 71; Sam Allardyce, football manager, 65; Dan ‘Woody’ Woodgate, drummer (Madness) 59; Evander Holyfield, former heavyweight boxing champion, 57; Jon Favreau, actor/director 53; Sinitta (Malone) singer, 51.