1383: Civil war breaks out in Portugal after King Fernando dies without a male heir.
1721: Tsar Peter The Great becomes All Russian Imperator.
1811: Birth of composer Franz Liszt in Hungary.
1836: Sam Houston inaugurated as the first elected President of the Republic of Texas.
1879: Thomas Edison perfects the carbonised cotton filament light bulb.
1897: The world’s first car dealer opens in London.
1906: Death of artist Paul Cezanne from pneumonia aged 67.
1910: Dr Hawley Crippen is convicted at the Old Bailey of poisoning his wife.
1934: Bank robber Charles ‘Pretty Boy’ Floyd is shot dead by FBI agents in Ohio.
1938: Chester Carlson demonstrates the first Xerox copying machine.
1953: Laos gains full independence from France.
1962: President John F Kennedy imposes a naval blockade on Cuba. It is the beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1964: Author Jean-Paul Sartre refuses the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1969: Paul McCartney publicly denies rumours that he is dead.
1973: Death of cellist Pablo Casals aged 94.
1986: Jane Dornacker is killed in a helicopter crash during a live traffic report for WNBC radio in New York.
1989: Death of singer songwriter Ewan MaColl aged 74.
1992: Blazing Saddles actor Cleavon Little dies of colon cancer aged 53.
1995: Death of author Kingsley Amis after a fall, aged 73.
2000: George Michael pays £1.45million for the Steinway piano John Lennon used to write the song Imagine.
BIRTHDAYS: Christopher Lloyd, actor, 81; Sir Derek Jacobi, actor, 81; Catherine Deneuve, actress, 76; Leslie West, guitarist (Mountain) 74; Kelvin MacKenzie, former editor of The Sun, 73; Arsene Wenger, football manager, 70; Jeff Goldblum, actor, 67; Shaggy (Orville Burrell), singer, 51; Spike Jonze, (Adam Spiegel) director, 50; Saffron Burrows, actress, 47; Michael Fishman, actor, 38; Plan B (Ben Drew) actor/musician 36; Jonathan Lipnicki, actor, 29.