1400: Author and poet Geoffrey Chaucer dies aged 54.
1415: Henry V’s forces defeat the larger French army at the Battle of Agincourt.
1596: The Spanish feet sails from Lisbon to Ireland.
1616: Dutch East India Company ship “The Eendracht” discovers Dirk-Hartog Island, Australia.
1671: Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus, satellite of Saturn.
1747: British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the second battle of Cape Finisterre.
1760: George III becomes king on the death of George II.
1828: The British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the second battle of Cape Finisterre.
1838: Birth of composer Georges Bizet in Paris.
1854: During the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War, the charge of the Light Brigade results in 100 killed.
1875: The first performance of Piano Concerto No. 1 by Tchaikovsky in Boston, Massachusetts.
1881: Birth of artist Pablo Picasso in Malaga.
1885: Premiere of Johannes Brahms’ 4th Symphony in E.
1900: Britain annexes the former Boer South African Republic, renaming it the Transvaal Colony.
1919: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran, is born on Tehran.
1941: 16,000 Jews are massacred in Odessa, Ukraine. On the same day, Germany attacks Moscow.
1945: The Japanese surrender Taiwan to General Chiang Kai-shek.
1955: Austria resumed its sovereignty for the first time since 1938 after the departure of the last Allied occupation forces.
1958: Cliff Richard makes his British radio debut on the BBC’s ‘Saturday Club’.
1962: John Steinbeck is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1964: Ferrari driver John Surtees finishes second in the season ending Mexican Grand Prix to clinch the Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1973: Ethiopian marathon legend Abebe Bikila dies of a brain haemorrhage aged 41.
1976: The Queen opens the National Theatre on the South Bank after years of delays.
1981: Singles chart:
- It’s My Party – Dave Stewart and Barbara Gaskin
- Happy Birthday – Altered Images
- O Superman – Laurie Anderson
- Absolute Beginners – The Jam
- The Birdie Song – The Tweets
- Every Little Thing She Does Is Magic – The Police
- Thunder In The Mountains – Toyah
- A Good Year For The Roses – Elvis Costello
- Labelled With Love – Squeeze
- It’s Raining – Shakin Stevens
- Dare – The Human League
- Shaky – Shakin Stevens
- Ghost In The Machine – The Police
- The Best Of… – Blondie
- Hedgehog Sandwich – Not The Nine o Clock News
- Hooked On Classics – The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
- If I Should Love Again – Barry Manilow
- Almost Blue – Elvis Costello and The Attractions
- Super Hits 1 and 2 – Various Artists
- Love Is… – Various Artists
1983: US forces seize control of the Caribbean island of Grenada less than a week after a left- – wing coup in which the prime minister, Maurice Bishop, was killed.
1984: The EEC donates £1.8 million to help combat the famine in Ethiopia.
1985: Singer and Auf Wiedersehen Pet actor Gary Holton dies of a drug overdose.
1990: Evander Holyfield KOs James Buster Douglas in Round 3 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1992: Singer-songwriter Roger Miller dies of lung and throat cancer aged 56.
1993: Actor Vincent Price dies aged 82.
1995: Cliff Richard is knighted by The Queen – the first pop star to receive the honour.
1999: Golfer Payne Stewart dies in a place crash aged 42.
2001: Crime rates in Britain are the lowest for 20 years. On the same day, Windows XP goes on sale.
2002: Actor Richard Harris dies aged 72.
2003: Johnny Cash’s step-daughter, Rosey Nix Adams and her fiddle player Jimmy Campbell were found dead on their tour bus in Clarksville, Tennessee from carbon monoxide poisoning.
2004: DJ John Peel died in Cuzco, Peru, from a heart attack, aged 65.
2009: Ivanka Trump marries Jared Kushner at Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster, New Jersey.
2014: Bassist Jack Bruce dies of liver failure aged 71.
2016: Brazil 1970 World Cup winning captain Carlos Alberto (Torres) dies aged 72.
BIRTHDAYS: Jon Anderson, singer-songwriter (Yes) 76; Glynis Barber, actress, 65; Chad Smith, drummer (The Red Hot Chilli Peppers) 58; Nick Hancock, TV presenter, 58; Ed Robertson, guitarist (Barenaked Ladies) 50; Zadie Smith, novelist, 45; Shaun Wright-Phillips, footballer, 39; Katy Perry (Kate Hudson), singer-songwriter, 36; Darron Gibson, footballer, 33.