1131: Louis VII the Young is crowned King of France.
1400: Death of author Geoffrey Chaucer.
1415: Henry V’s forces defeat larger French army at the Battle of Agincourt.
1671: Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus, satellite of Saturn.
1760: George III ascends to the British throne at the death of George II.
1828: St Katharine Docks opens in London.
1838: Birth of composer Georges Bizet in Paris.
1854: 100 people are killed in the Charge of Light Brigade during the Battle of Balaclava.
1875: The first performance of the Piano Concerto No 1 by Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts.
1881: Birth of artist Pablo Picasso in Malaga.
1885: Premiere of Brahms’ 4th Symphony in E.
1900: Britain annexes the former Boer South African Republic, renaming it the Transvaal.
1955: Austria resumed its sovereignty after departure of last Allied occupation forces, for first time since German occupation of 1938.
1962: Uganda is admitted to the United Nations. On the same day, John Steinbeck wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1966: The Jimi Hendrix Experience play their first UK gig as a private showcase at The Scotch of St. James in London.
1968: Yoko Ono announces she is pregnant with John Lennon’s baby. She eventually miscarries.
1970: Austrian driver Jochen Rindt wins the Formula1 World Drivers Championship. The only time it has been won posthumously.
1973: Ethiopian Olympic marathon champion Abebe Bikila dies of a brain haemorrhage aged 41.
1990: Evander Holyfield knocks out James Buster Douglas in three rounds to win the world heavyweight boxing title.
1995: Cliff Richard receives his knighthood from The Queen. He is the first pop star to be knighted.
2004: Death of DJ and broadcaster John Peel aged 65.
2014: Death of Jack Bruce, bass player with Cream aged 71.
2015: Lewis Hamilton wins his second Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
2018: Sahle-Work Zewde becomes Ethiopia’s first female President and Africa’s only female head of state.
BIRTHDAYS: Helen Reddy, singer,78; Jon Anderson, singer (Yes) 75; Richard Lloyd, guitarist (Television) 68; Glynis Barber, actress, 64; Matthias Jabs, musician (The Scorpions) 63; Chad Smith (Chadwick Gaylord) drummer (Red Hot Chili Peppers), 58; Nick Hancock, TV presenter, 57; Zadie Smith, novelist, 44; Shaun Wright-Philips, former footballer, 38; Katy Perry (Katheryn Hudson), singer, 35.