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AD306: Maxentius is proclaimed Emperor of Rome.
312: Constantine The Great defeats Emperor Maxentius, who drowns, at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.
1420: Beijing is declared the capital of the Ming dynasty.
1492: Christopher Columbus sights Cuba and claims it for Spain, calling it Juana.
1538: The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established on Hispaniola.
1636: Harvard University founded.
1704: Death of philosopher John Locke.
1726: Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift is published.
1740: Death of Empress of Russia, Anna Ivanova Romanova, aged 47.
1746: 18,000 people die when the Peruvian cities of Lima and Callao are demolished by an earthquake.
1811: First known purchase of Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility is by the Prince Regent (later George IV).
1886: The Statue of Liberty is dedicated by US President Grover Cleveland.
1893: Tchaikovsky conducts first performance of his Symphony Number Six in B minor, “Pathetique”.
1900: The Paris Olympics ends after five months without a closing ceremony.
1914: Birth of Jonas Salk, creator of the polio vaccine.
1918: Czechoslovakia gains independence as Austria-Hungary breaks up.
1919: The Volstead act is passed by the US Congress, beginning prohibition despite President Woodrow Wilson’s veto.
1922: Italian fascists march on Rome leading to the assumption of power by Benito Mussolini.
1927: Tito (Josip Broz) begins a seven month jail sentence in Croatia.
1948: The flag of Israel is adopted.
1951: Juan Manuel Fangio of Argentina wins the Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1954: Ernest Hemingway wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1958: Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli is elected Pope John XXIII.
1965: Death of jazz alto saxophonist Earl Bostic aged 52.
1971: John Lennon and Yoko Ono record “Happy Xmas (War is Over)” in New York.
1997: REM drummer Bill Berry announced that he was leaving the group after 17 years to become a farmer.
1998: Death of poet Ted Hughes aged 68.
2007: Country musician Porter Wagoner died in Nashville aged 80.
2012: A Syrian ceasefire collapses and 128 people are killed in ongoing civil war violence.
2017: The Spanish government imposes direct rule on Catalonia, dismisses its government and calls for new elections.
2018: Lewis Hamilton in a Mercedes wins his fifth Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
BIRTHDAYS: Cleo Laine, jazz singer, 92; Bernie Ecclestone, motorsport impressario, 89: David Dimbleby, broadcaster, 81; Hank Marvin (Brian Rankin), guitarist,78; Caitlin Jenner (Bruce Jenner), Olynpic athlete, 70; Annie Potts, actress, 67; Bill Gates, Microsoft founder, 64; Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Former President of Iran, 63; Stephen Morris, drummer (New Order), 62; Lauren Holly, actress, 56; Jami Gertz, actress, 54; Julia Roberts, actress, 52; Ben Harper, musician, 50; Joachin Phoenix (Joachin Raphael Bottom), actor, 45; Gwendoline Christie, actress, 41; Matt Smith, actor, 37; Frank Ocean (Christopher Cooksey), singer/songwriter, 32.