1226: Death of St Francis of Assisi.
1712: The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.
1778: Captain James Cook anchors at Alaska.
1849: Author Edgar Allen Poe is found delerious in a gutter under mysterious circumstances.
1908: The newspaper Pravda is founded by Leon Trotsky and other Russian exiles in Vienna.
1926: English long distance runner Violet Piercy sets first recognised female marathon record.
1929: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats & Slovenes changes its name to Yugoslavia.
1941: The Maltese Falcon starring Humphrey Bogart premiers in New York.
1957: Willy Brandt is elected mayor of West Berlin.
1967: Death of American folk singer Woody Guthrie.
1968: A military coup overthrows President Fernando Belaúnde Terry in Peru.
1971: Tennis player Billie Jean King becomes the first athlete to win $100,000 prize money in a single year.
1971: Jackie Stewart wins the Formula 1 Drivers Championship for the second time.
1989: An attempted coup to overthrow Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega fails.
1992: Madonna’s Erotica video premiers on MTV.
1992: Sinead O’Connor rips up a picture of Pope John Paul II on Saturday Night Live.
1993: Boris Yeltsin declares a state of emergency in Moscow.
2005: Death of comedian Ronnie Barker.
BIRTHDAYS: Lindsey Buckingham, musician, 70; Fred Couples, golfer, 60; Tommy Lee, drummer (Motley Crue), 59; Clive Owen, actor, 55; Gwen Stefani, singer, 50; Lena Headey, actress, 46; Seann William Scott, actor, 43; Jake Shears, singer (Scissor Sisters), 41; Zlatan Ibrahimovic, former footballer, 38; Danny O’Donoghue, singer (The Script), 36; Alicia Vikander, actress, 31.