1492: Christopher Columbus misses Florida when he changes course.
1542: Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovers Catalina Island off the coast of California. This would have been before the days of the wine mixer.
1571: The Holy League of southern European nations destroys the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto.
1737: A cyclone causes 40 foot waves that are believed to have killed 300,000 in Calcutta.
1806: Carbon paper is patented in London by Ralph Wedgwood.
1907: Frenchman Henri Farman wins the Grand Prix d’Aviation flying 30m in a biplane.
1915: English nurse Edith Cavell is sentenced to death along with 34 others by a German court martial for running an underground network to free Allied soldiers.
1919: First London-Amsterdam airline service. On the same day, KLM, the oldest surviving airline is founded.
1928: Ras Tafari Makonnen is crowned king of Abyssinia.
1929: Ramsey MacDonald is the first British Prime Minister to address the US Congress.
1944: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is ordered to return to Berlin. On the same day, crematoriums are burned down in an uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.
1949: The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed from the Russian occupation zone.
1950: US forces invade North Korea by crossing the 38th parallel.
1954: Hassan el Hodeiby, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is arrested in Egypt.
1955: Allen Ginsberg reads his poem “Howl” for the first time at a poetry reading in San Francisco.
1958: US manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury.
1959: Three hundred people are rescued after being cut off by a blaze on Southend Pier. On the same day, the far side of Moon is seen for the first time, courtesy of the USSR’s Luna 3 probe.
1963: Hurricane Flora hits Haiti and the Dominican Republic, killing 7,190.
1966: Johnny Kidd was killed in a car in Radcliffe, Manchester, aged 27.
1968: Rioting continues in Derry after the RUC put down civil rights march two days earlier.
1971: Prime Minister Edward Heath and Northern Ireland Prime Minister Brian Faulkner agree to send an additional 1,500 British Army troops to Northern Ireland.
1973: Jackie Stewart wins his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship despite withdrawing from the season ending US Grand Prix at Watkins Glen.
1976: John Lennon was awarded his ‘Green Card’ – permanent residency status, at a hearing in New York which overturned previous efforts by the US Government to deport him. On the same day, Hua Guofeng succeeds Mao as chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
1977: Guitarist Steve Hackett quits Genesis.
1979: Ferrari driver Jody Scheckter retires with tyre trouble in the US Grand Prix at Watkins Glen, but still becomes the first South African to claim Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1981: Hosni Mubarak becomes acting-president of Egypt following the assassination of Anwar Sadat.
1985: Palestinian militants hijack the liner Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean.
1986: The first edition of The Independent is published.
1988: The Latvian flag is raised in Riga for the first time since annexation by the USSR.
1996: Rupert Murdoch launches Fox News.
2001: The US launches its military offensive against al-Qaeda and the Taleban in Afghanistan.
- Can’t Get You Out Of My Head – Kylie Minogue
- Hey Baby – DJ Otzi
- What Would You Do? – City High
- Chain Reaction – Steps
- Smooth Criminal – Alien Ant Farm
- Thinking It Over – Liberty X
- Sven Sven Sven – Bell & Spurling
- Fat Lip – Sum 41
- Mambo No 5 – Bob The Builder
- Family Affair – Mary J Blige
- Fever – Kylie Minogue
- Songs From The West Coast – Elton John
- Music Of The Spheres – Ian Brown
- The Album – Bob The Builder
- Collection – Tracy Chapman
- Beautiful Garbage – Garbage
- Then And Now – David Cassidy
- The Invisible Band – Travis
- No Angel – Dido
- Victoria Beckham – Victoria Beckham
2003: Arnold Schwarzenegger becomes governor of California.
2004: King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia abdicates.
2008: Launch of Spotify.
2016: The Washington Post releases a video of Donald Trump boasting about groping and kissing women without consent.
2018: Jodie Whittaker debuts in her first full episode as the 13th and first female Doctor Who on BBC TV.
BIRTHDAYS: Kevin Godley, drummer/singer-songwriter/director (10cc) 75; David Hope, bassist (Kansas) 71; John Mellencamp, singer-songwriter, 69; Tico Torres, drummer (Bon Jovi) 67; Simon Cowell, record executive/TV personality, 61; Sam Brown, singer, 56; Toni Braxton, singer, 53; Thom Yorke, singer-songwriter/guitarist (Radiohead) 52; Leeroy Thornhill, dancer (The Prodigy) 51; Alesha Dixon, singer/TV personality, 42; Lewis Capaldi, singer-songwriter, 24.