768: Charlemagne and his brother Carloman I are crowned Kings of The Franks.
1192: Richard I leaves Jerusalem in disguise.
1651: Parliament passes the Navigation Act.
1806: Prussia declares war on France.
1854: The siege of Sevastopol begins during the Crimean War.
1855: Isaac Singer patents the sewing machine motor.
1870: Rome is incorporated into Italy by royal decree.
1876: The first 2-way telephone conversation over outdoor wires.
1914: German troops take Antwerp.
1932: Stalin expels Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev from the Communist Party after a power struggle.
1934: Alexander I King of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou are assassinated in Marseille.
1940: John Lennon born in Liverpool.
1941: US President Franklin D Roosevelt approves an atomic program that will become the Manhattan Project.
1944: Churchill arrives in Russia for talks with Stalin.
1947: The first telephone conversation between a moving car and a plane.
1953: Konrad Adenauer becomes Chancellor of West Germany.
1958: Death of Pope Pius XII.
1962: Uganda gains independence from Britain
1963: Prime minister Harold Macmillan resigns and is replaced by Alec Douglas-Home.
1967: Revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed in Bolivia.
1970: The Khmer Republic (Cambodia) declares independence.
1973: Elvis and Priscilla Presley were granted a divorce.
1981: Capital punishment is abolished in France.
1986: Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Phantom of the Opera premiers in London.
1990: All four members of The Stone Roses were each fined £3,000 after being found guilty of criminal damage at their former record company’s offices.
1995: Death of former prime minister Sir Alec Douglas-Home.
2002: Serial killer Aileen Wournos is executed in the US.
2015: Death of former Conservative politician Sir Geoffrey Howe and newsreader Gordon Honeycombe.
2017: Harvey Weinstein is fired from The Weinstein Company after allegations of sexual abuse.
BIRTHDAYS: Brian Blessed, actor, 83; Jackson Browne, songwriter, 71; Sharon Osbourne, TV personality/Ozzy’s wife and manager, 67; Tony Shaloub, actor, 66; Scott Bakula, actor, 65; James Fearnley, musician (The Pogues) 65; Steve Ovett, Olympic athlete, 64; David Cameron, former prime minister, 53; Mat Osman, musician, (Suede) 52; P J Harvey, musician, 50; Sean Lennon, musician, 44; Nicky Byrne, singer (Westlife) 41; Brandon Routhm actor, 40; Bella Hadid, fashion model, 23.