1297: Scottish rebel William Wallace defeats the Engllish at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.
1390: Teutonic Knights begin a five-week siege of Vilnius during the Lithuanian Civil War.
1541: Santiago, Chile, is destroyed by indigenous warriors, lead by Michimalonko.
1649: Oliver Cromwell’s forces kills 3,000 royalists at the Massacre of Drogheda, Ireland.
1697: Forces of Prince Eugen of Savoye defeat the Turks at the Battle of Zenta, ending Ottoman control of large parts of Central Europe.
1709: An English, Austrian and Dutch Great Alliance defeat France at the Battle at Malplaquet during the War of the Spanish Succession.
1714: French and Spanish troops under the Duke of Berwick occupy Barcelona.
1758: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War at the Battle of Saint Cast.
1773: Benjamin Franklin writes: “There never was a good war or bad peace.”
1777: Americans lose to the British at the Battle of Brandywine, Pennsylvania.
1792: The Hope diamond (known then as the French Blue gem) is stolen with other French crown jewels from Royal storehouse in Paris.
1814: After six days, the Americans defeat the British at the Battle of Plattsburgh during the War of 1812. On the same day, the American Navy defeats the British at the Battle of Lake Champlain.
1857: Mormons dressed as Indians murder 120 colonists in Utah.
1885: Birth of author D H Lawrence in Notts.
1890: John Ball becomes the first Englishman and first amateur to win the US Open golf.
1895: The FA Cup is stolen in Birmingham.
1906: Gandhi coins the term “Satyagraha” to characterize the non-violence movement in South Africa.
1909: Max Wolf rediscovers Halley’s comet.
1914: W C Handy publishes his most famous composition “St Louis Blues”.
1916: German troops conquer Kavalla, Greece. On the same day, in Canada, the Quebec Bridge’s central span collapses during reconstruction, killing 11 men.
1922: The British mandate of Palestine begins.
1926: Spain leaves the League of Nations due to Germany joining.
1930: An eruption of the volcano Stromboli on Sicily throws two-ton basaltic rocks two miles.
1937 American Don Budge wins his first of two straight US National tennis titles, beating Gottfried von Cramm of Germany 6-1, 7-9, 6-1, 3-6, 6-1.
1939: Iraq and Saudi Arabia declare war on Nazi Germany.
1941: President Franklin D Roosevelt orders the US Navy that any Axis ship found in American waters be shot at on sight. On the same day, construction of the Pentagon begins in Arlington County, Virginia.
1942: “Five on a Treasure Island” the first of Enid Blyton’s “Famous Five” children’s novels, is published.
1943: Allied armed forces conquer Salerno, Italy. On the same day, the Jewish ghettos of Minsk and Lida Belorussia are liquidated.
1944: A reconnaissance squadron of the US 5th Armored Division “Victory Division” is the first allied force to enter Nazi-Germany.
1945: Japanese prime minister Hideki Tojo attempts suicide rather than face a war crimes tribunal. He fails and is later hanged. On the same day, physician Willem J Kolff performs the first successful kidney dialysis in The Netherlands.
1951: Igor Stravinsky’s opera “The Rake’s Progress,” premieres in Venice. On the same day, Florence Chadwick becomes the first woman to swim the English Channel from England to France.
1952: Ahmet Ertegun begins recording his newest signing, 21 year old Ray Charles at Atlantic Records on West 56th St in New York City.
1955: Juan Manuel Fango in a Mercedes wins the season ending Italian Grand Prix at Monza to take his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1959: Singles chart:
- Only Sixteen – Craig Douglas
- Living Doll – Cliff Richard & The Shadows
- Lonely Boy – Paul Anka
- Here Comes Summer – Jerry Keller
- China Tea – Russ Conway
- Lipstick On Your Collar – Connie Francis
- Someone – Johnny Mathis
- Battle Of New Orleans – Lonnie Donegan
- Mona Lisa – Conway Twitty
- The Heart Of A Man – Frankie Vaughan
1960: The Olympic games close in Rome.
- Down Drury Lane To Memory Lane – 101 Strings
- South Pacific – Original Soundtrack
- Elvis Is Back – Elvis Presley
- At The Oxford Union – Gerard Hoffnung
- It’s Everly Time – The Everly Brothers
- The Great Caruso – Mario Lanza
- My Fair Lady – Original Broadway Cast
- The Buddy Holly Story – Buddy Holly and The Crickets
- Elvis Golden Records Vol 2 – Elvis Presley
- Flower Drum Song – Original Broadway Cast
1961: Foundation of the World Wildlife Fund.
1962: The Beatles record “Love Me Do” and “PS I Love You” at EMI Studios in Abbey Road with Andy White on drums as producer George Martin was not prepared to take a chance on a drummer he had never met – Ringo Starr. Ringo played tambourine on the single release and did later play drums on the songs for the Please Please Me album.
1967: Filming began for The Beatles’ film Magical Mystery Tour. On the same day, fights break out on the India/China border.
1971: Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, dies of a heart attack aged 77.
1972: The Olympic Games close in Munich.
1973: President Salvador Allende of Chile – the world’s first democratically-elected Marxist head of state – dies in a revolt led by General Augusto Pinochet.
1978: Bulgarian writer and broadcaster Georgi Markov dies of blood poisoning, four days after being stabbed with an umbrella at a bus stop on Waterloo Bridge, London. On the same day, The last known person dies of smallpox – medical photographer Janet Parker through infection in a laboratory, in Birmingham.
1980: The Marlborough diamond is stolen from a London jewellers in Knightsbridge.
1982: Chris Evert wins her sixth and final US Open tennis title, beating Hana Mandlíková of Czechoslovakia 6-3, 6-1.
1987: Founding member of The Wailers, Peter Tosh, is shot dead at his home in Kingston Jamaica, by armed robbers.
1994: Actress Jessica Tandy dies aged 85
1997: After a nationwide referendum, Scotland votes to establish a devolved parliament within the UK.
1998: The Commonwealth Games open in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
2001: Thousands die when hijacked jets crash into the World Trade Centre in New York, resulting in the total destruction of both towers, and The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. A fourth plane crashes into a field in Pittsburg after passengers fight their hijackers.
2003: Swedish Foreign Minister, Anna Lindh, dies after being stabbed in a Stockholm department store. On the same day, Tommy Chong, one-half of the comedy team of Cheech and Chong, was sentenced to nine months in federal prison and fined $20,000 for selling drug paraphernalia over the Internet.
2005: Thirty-eight years of military rule come to an end as Israeli troops leave Gaza.
2007: Jazz keyboardist/composer Joe Zawinul dies aged 74.
2012: The US consulate in Benghazi, Libya, is stormed, looted and burned down, killing five people, including the US ambassador.
2014: Songwriter, manager, and record producer Bob Crewe, who co-wrote a string of early hits for the Four Seasons, died aged 83. On the same day, South African athlete Oscar Pistorius is found not guilty of murdering his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp (he is later found guilty of culpable homicide).
2018: American-backed militia begins a final push to oust militants from Hajin, Syria, the last area under Islamic State control.
BIRTHDAYS: Brian DePalma, director, 80; Mickey Hart, drummer (The Grateful Dead) 77; Franz Beckenbauer, German footballer, 75; Tommy Shaw, guitarist (Styx) 67; Jon Moss, drummer (Culture Club) 63; Mick Talbot, keyboards (Style Council) 62; Virginia Madsen, actress, 59; Moby (Richard Hall), singer/DJ, 55; Bashar al-Hassad, President of Syria, 55; Harry Connick Jr, singer/pianist/actor, 53; Taraji P. Henson, actress, 50; Richard Ashcroft, singer-songwriter (The Verve) 49; Johnny Vegas (Michael Pennington), comedian/actor. 49; Jonny Buckland, guitarist (Coldplay) 43; Ludacris, (Chris Bridges) rapper, 43; Charley Kelley, country singer-songwriter (Lady A) 39.