1217: French prince Louis and English King Henry III sign a peace treaty.
1624: The first submarine is publicly tested on the River Thames for James I.
1755: Giacomo Casanova is sentenced to five years imprisonment in Venice without trial for affront to religion and common decency.
1759: British soldiers capture Quebec.
1829: The Greek War of Independence ends after eight and a half years.
1846: Robert Browning marries fellow poet Elizabeth Barrett at Marylebone Church in London.
1848: Switzerland becomes a Federal state.
1878: Cleopatra’s Needle installed in London.
1890: Cecil Rhodes colonists found Fort Salisbury (now Harare, Zimbabwe).
1908: Winston Churchill marries Clementine Hozier.
1910: Gustav Mahler’s 8th Symphony premieres in Munich.
1918: US forces launch an attack on German-occupied St Mihiel.
1919: Adolf Hitler joins the obscure German Worker’s Party as its seventh member, agreeing not with worker’s rights, but with its German Nationalism and antisemitism.
1923: Britain takes over Southern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Co.
1933: Waiting at traffic lights on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, physicist Leo Szilard conceives idea of a nuclear chain reaction.
1935: Howard Hughes flies his own designed plane at 352.46 mph.
1940: Italian troops enter Egypt. On the same day, four teenagers, follow their dog down a hole near Lascaux, France, and discover 17,000 year old drawings now known as the Lascaux Cave Paintings.
1942: The Battle of Edson’s Ridge begins at Guadalcanal.
1948: The Indian Army invades the Pakistani state of Hyderabad.
1949: Theodor Heuss elected first President of the German Federal Republic (West Germany) with Konrad Adenaur as Prime Minister.
1953: Senator John F Kennedy marries Jacqueline Bouvier in Newport, Rhode Island.
1958: The US Supreme Court orders the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, to integrate.
1959: The Russian rocket Lunik II is launched towards the Moon, crashing on the surface 36 hours later – the first craft to do so.
1966: Gemini XI with Charles “Pete” Conrad and Richard F. Gordon aboard is launched for a 71-hour flight partly to test for the effects of long-term weightlessness.
1968: Albania announces it is withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact.
1970: Palestinian hijackers blow up the three planes they have been holding at an airfield in the Jordanian desert.
1974: Brian Clough is sacked as manager of Leeds United after just 44 days. On the same day, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is overthrown in a coup.
1976: Singles chart:
- Dancing Queen – ABBA
- The Killing Of Georgie – Rod Stewart
- Can’t Get By Without You – The Real Thing
- (Light Of Experience) Doina De Jale – Georghe Zamphir
- Aria – Acker Bilk
- Let ‘Em In – Wings
- 16 Bars – The Stylistics
- You Don;t Have To Go – The Chi-Lites
- I Am A Cider Drinker – The Wurzels
- I Only Wanna Be With You – The Bay City Rollers
- 20 Golden Greats – The Beach Boys
- Greatest Hits 2 – Diana Ross
- Laughter And Tears – Neil Sedaka
- Greatest Hits – ABBA
- A Night On The Town – Rod Stewart
- Wings At The Speed Of Sound – Wings
- Forever And Ever – Demis Roussos
- No Reason To cry – Eric Clapton
- A Little Bit More – Dr Hook
- Spirit – John Denver
1977: The leader of the black consciousness movement in South Africa, Steve Biko, dies aged 30 in police custody.
1980: Military coup in Turkey under General Kenan Evren.
1986: Public Image Ltd guitarist John McGeoch requires 40 stitches in his face after a two-litre wine bottle is thrown at the stage during a gig in Vienna. On the same day, US professor Joseph Cicippio is kidnapped by Hezbollah in Beirut.
1988: Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica. On the same day, a Cuban diplomat opened fire in a crowded London street. His government goes on to claim his reaction was due to an American plot to make him defect.
1995: The Belarus military shoots down a hydrogen balloon, killing its two American pilots.
1997: Scotland votes decisively for home rule in a referendum on how they want the country to be governed.
1999: Indonesia announces it will allow international peace-keepers into East Timor.
2001: President George W Bush declares a war on terror.
2003: Johnny Cash dies aged 71. On the same day, US forces mistakenly shoot and kill eight Iraqi police officers in Fallujah. Also, the UN lifts sanctions against Libya after it agreed to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie.
2005: England win the Ashes for the first time since 1987. On the same day, the bodies of more than 40 patients are discovered in a flooded hospital in New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
2007: The surviving members of Led Zeppelin announce they are to reform with late drummer John Bonham’s son Jason takin his dad’s place for a tribute concert to Atlantic Records founder Ahmet Ertegun at the O2 Arena in London. On the same day, Shinzo Abe announces his intention to resign as Prime Minister of Japan.
2008: Kanye West is arrested on suspicion of vandalism after a row with a photographer at Los Angeles International Airport.
2009: Belgian Kim Clijsters becomes the first unseeded player and wildcard to win the US Open Women’s tennis tournament, beating Caroline Wozniacki of Denmark 7-5, 6-3.
2012: Excavators announce that they may have found the remains of Richard III under a car park in Leicester.
2013: Ray Dolby, the US engineer who pioneered noise reduction in audio recordings, dies aged 80 from leukemia.
2014: Death of actor Donald Sinden aged 90. On the same day, loyalist politician Ian Paisley dies aged 88.
2015: Jeremy Corbyn is elected leader of the Labour party. On the same day, 12 tourists mistaken for militants, are killed by Egyptian forces in the Western Desert.
2017: A monster fatburg the size of 11 buses is found in the sewers under east London.
2018: The European parliament votes to pursue disciplinary action against Hungary for anti-democratic actions the first ever such vote.
2020: Chloé Zhao’s “Nomadland” starring Frances McDormand wins the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival.
BIRTHDAYS: Patrick Mower, actor, 83; Linda Gray, actress, 81; Frankie Avalon (Avallone), singer/actor, 81; Maria Muldaur, singer-songwriter, 78; Maria Aitken, actress, 76; B A (Brian) Roberton, songwriter, 65; Rachel Ward, actress, 64; Steve Ogrizovic, goalkeeper, 64; Hans Zimmer, film score composer, 64; Joe Pantoliano, actor, 60: Ben Folds, singer-songwriter/pianist/producer, 55; Louis C. K. (Székely), comedian, 54; Kenny Thomas, singer, 53; Ángel Cabrera, golfer, 52; Darren Campbell, athlete, 48; James McCartney, musician, 44; Ben McKenzie, actor/director, 43; Jennifer Hudson, singer/actress, 40; Layla Moran, MP, Lib Dem politician, 39; Alfie Allen, actor, 35; RM (Kim Nam-joon), singer (BTS) 27; Mhairi Black MP, SNP politician, 27.