81AD: Dometian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus.
1662: The Netherlands and England sign a peace treaty.
1741: George Frideric Handel finishes his “Messiah” oratorio after working on it non-stop for 23 days.
1759: Austrian troops occupy Dresden.
1812: The Great Fire of Moscow begins as Napoleon approaches the city and retreating Russians burn the city.
1814: Francis Scott Key pens the poem “Defence of Fort M’Henry”, later known as “The Star-Spangled Banner” while witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry from a ship in Baltimore harbour.
1852: Death of Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, aged 83.
1854: British and French forces land at Calamita Bay on the Crimean Peninsula, during the Crimean War.
1856: Nicaraguan forces defeat American filibusters at the Battle of San Jacinto.
1862: Union troops win a tactical victory over Confederate forces at the Battle of Crampton’s Gap during the American Civil War. On the same day, Union troops defeat an outnumbered Confederate force at the Battle of South Mountain.
1868: Golf’s first recorded hole-in-one by Tom Morris at Prestwick’s 8th hole.
1876: Henry Morton Stanley’s expedition leaves Rwanda.
1886: George K Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee, patents the typewriter ribbon.
1901: Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as the youngest man to serve as US President, after William McKinley succumbs to injuries he sustained from being shot by an anarchist on September 6.
1911: Russian Prime Minister Peter Stolypin is assassinated in Kiev.
1914: The Lord Kitchener poster “Your country needs you” appears as the front cover design for London Opinion magazine.
1918: Austria-Hungary sends a note to the Allies requesting peace discussions, but the Allies reject the offer.
1923: Jack Dempsey KOs Luis Firpo in Round 2 for the heavyweight boxing title. On the same day, Miguel Primo de Rivera becomes dictator of Spain.
1927: Dancer Isadora Duncan is killed aged 50 when her scarf becomes entangled in her car’s wheel.
1930: Nazis gain 107 seats in the German election.
1937: US President Franklin D Roosevelt bans US ships from trading arms with China or Japan.
1938: Graf Zeppelin II, the world’s largest airship, makes its maiden flight.
1948: Groundbreaking ceremony for UN world headquarters in New York.
1949: India’s Constituent Assembly adopts Hindi as an official language.
1951: Prime Minister Clement Attlee opens the largest oil refinery in Europe, at Fawley on Southampton Water.
1953: Nikita Khrushchev is appointed First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1954: Benjamin Britten’s opera ‘Turn of the Screw’ premieres in Venice.
1955: Little Richard entered a New Orleans recording studio. Things were not going well and during a break, Richard and his producer; Bumps Blackwell went to the Dew Drop Inn for lunch. Richard started playing the piano in the bar, singing a loud and lewd version of ‘Tutti Frutti.’ With only 15 minutes left in the session, Richard recorded the song and coined the phrase, ‘a-wop-bop-a-loo-bop-a-lop-bam-boom.’
1956: IBM introduces the RAMAC 305, the first commercial computer with a hard drive that uses magnetic disk storage. It weighs over a ton.
1960: The army takes control of the West African state of Congo just 10 weeks after the country was granted independence.
1961: Singles chart:
- Johnny Remember Me – John Leyton
- Reach For The Stars – Shirley Bassey
- You Don’t Know – Helen Shapiro
- Wild In The Country – Helen Shapiro
- Well I Ask You – Eden Kane
- Halfway To Paradise – Billy Fury
- Kon-Tiki – The Shadows
- That’s My Home – Acker Bilk
- Quarter To Three – Gary US Bonds
- How Many Tears – Bobby Vee
1963: Mary Ann Fischer of Aberdeen, South Dakota, gives birth to America’s 1st surviving quintuplets.
1968: Roy Orbison’s house in Nashville burnt down, killing his two eldest sons.
1971: Two British soldiers are killed in separate shooting incidents in Co Tyrone.
1975: Rembrandt’s “Nightwatch” is slashed and damaged in Amsterdam.
1981: Teenager Marcus Sarjeant, 17, pleaded guilty to a charge under the 1848 Treason Act after firing two blank shots at The Queen during the Trooping of the Colour ceremony in June. He was jailed for five years.
1982: Princess Grace of Monaco dies of the injuries she sustained in a car crash near Monte Carlo the previous day.
1984: Actress Janet Gaynor (Laura Augusta Gainor) dies aged 77 from injuries she sustained in an auto accident two years earllier.
1985: Two days after the British Government ordered the expulsion of 25 alleged Soviet spies, prompted by the defection of KGB chief Oleg Gordievsky, the USSR retaliates by throwing out 25 British nationals.
1986: Album chart:
- Now That’s What I Call Music 7 – Various Artists
- Break Every Rule – Tina Turner
- Revenge – Eurythmics
- Graceland – Paul Simon
- Silk And Steel – Five Star
- True Blue – Madonna
- Crash – The Human League
- Slippery When Wet – Bon Jovi
- A Kind Of Magic – Queen
- Dancing On The Ceiling – Lionel Richie
1991: “The Fisher King” directed by Terry Gilliam wins the People’s Choice Award at the Toronto International Film Festival.
1994: Singer Steve Earle was sentenced to 1 year in jail after being found guilty of possession of crack cocaine.
1998: “The Royle Family” written and starring Caroline Aherne and Craig Cash, premieres on BBC2.
2003: Estonia approves joining the European Union in a referendum while Sweden rejects adopting the Euro.
2009: Actor Patrick Swayze dies aged 57 from cancer. On the same day, celebrity chef Keith Floyd dies from a heart attack aged 65.
2015: Texan student Ahmed Mohamed, 14, is arrested at school when a home-made clock he made for a science project is assumed to be a bomb.
2019: A drone attack on Abqaiq oil plant in Saudi Arabia takes out half of country’s oil production and 5% of the world’s. Yemen Houthi rebels claim responsibility.
BIRTHDAYS: Walter Koenig, actor, 84; Martin Tyler, sports commentator, 75; Sam Neill, actor, 73; Morten Harket, singer (A-Ha) 61; Melissa Leo, actress, 60; Dmitri Medvedev, Russian politician, 55; John Power, singer, songwriter (Cast/The La’s) 53; Andrew Lincoln (Clutterbuck) actor, 47; Ben Cohen, rugby union star, 42; Ashley Roberts, singer/dancer (The Pussycat Dolls) 39.