921: Saint Ludmila is murdered at the command of her daughter-in-law at Tetin.
1254: Birth of explorer Marco Polo in Venice.
1514: Thomas Wolsey is appointed Archbishop of York.
1590: Giambattista Catagna is elected as Pope Urban VII.
1621: Swedish troops occupy Riga.
1656: England and France sign a peace treaty.
1776: British forces capture Kip’s Bay, Manhattan, during the Revolutionary War.
1812: Napoleon’s army reaches the Kremlin.
1821: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua declare their independence from the Spanish Empire.
1830: MP William Huskisson if the first passenger to be killed by a train when he is run over and fatally wounded by Robert Stephenson’s pioneering locomotive Rocket at Eccles on the day the Duke of Wellington opens the Liverpool & Manchester Railway.
1835: Charles Darwin reaches the Galapagos Islands on HMS Beagle.
1859: Engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel dies of a stroke at 53.
1862: Confederates conquer Union weapons arsenal at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia during the American Civil War.
1890: Birth of crime writer Agatha Christie in Torquay.
1894: Japan defeats China in the Battle of Ping Yang.
1900: A Boer delegation issues an appeal at the Hague that the major powers intervene in the war in South Africa.
1910: Boers and Afrikaners win the first general elections in the Union of South-Africa.
1916: The first use of tanks in warfare at the Battle of Flers-Courcelette, part of the Battle of the Somme.
1917: Russia is proclaimed a republic by Alexander Kerensky’s Provisional government.
1923: The Governor of Oklahoma declares state of siege because of Ku Klux Klan terror.
1928: Bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin while studying influenza.
1931: The British naval fleet mutinies at Invergordon over pay cuts.
1935: German Jews are deprived of citizenship and the swastika becomes the official symbol of Nazi Germany.
1938: British prime minister Neville Chamberlain visits Adolf Hitler at the Fuhrer’s Berchtesgaden retreat.
1940: Winston Churchill visits RAF 11th Fighter Group on what would be the fiercest day of the Battle of Britain.
1941: Nazis kill 800 Jewish women at Shkudvil, Lithuania.
1944: Soviet troops free Sofia, Bulgaria.
1950: The United Nations lands thousands of troops on the Korean coast behind enemy lines, in the first counter-attack of the war.
1952: The European Parliament forms in Strasbourg. On the same day, the UN turns over Eritrea to Ethiopia.
1963: Four African-American girls are killed when a church in Birningham, Alabama, is bombed. On the same day, Ben Bella is elected first president of Algeria.
1964: The Sun is published for the first time, replacing the Daily Herald.
1966: Responding to a sniper attack at the University of Texas, President Lyndon B Johnson writes a letter to Congress urging the enactment of gun control legislation.
1968: Album chart:
- Delilah – Tom Jones
- Greatest Hits – The Hollies
- Bookends – Simon and Garfunkel
- The Sound Of Music – Original Soundtrack
- A Man Without Love – Englebert Humperdinck
- Wheels Of Fire – Cream
- Best Of… – The Beach Boys
- Boogie With Canned Heat – Canned Heat
- In Search Of The Lost Chord – The Moody Blues
- Live At The Talk Of The Town – The Seekers
1970: PLO leader Yasser Arafat threatens to make a cemetery of Jordan. On the same day, officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary vote narrowly in favour of remaining unarmed.
1978: Astrid Proll, one of the most wanted members of the West German Baader-Meinhof terrorist gang is detained in London. On the same day, Muhammad Ali beats Leon Spinks in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
1981: Vanuatu becomes a member of the United Nations.
1982: Israeli forces began pouring into west Beirut on the day Yasser Arafat meets with The Pope in the Vatican.
1983: New York police officers beat a man, Michael Stewart, to death for graffiting in the subway. On the same day, Israeli premier Menachem Begin resigns.
1987: Pope John Paul II arrives in Los Angeles for a two-day papal visit.
1988: Lillehammer, Norway, is chosen as host of the 1994 Winter Olympics.
1994: A reel to reel tape of The Quarry Men appearing at St Peter’s Parish Church garden party Liverpool in July, 1957, sold for £69,000 at a Sotheby’s auction. On the same day, Muslim fundamentalists kidnap and behead 16 citizens in Algeria.
1997: Google.com is registered as a domain name.
2000: The Olympic Games opens at Sydney, Australia.
2002: Singles chart:
- The Tide Is High – Atomic Kitten
- Got To Have Your Love – Liberty X
- Papa Don’t Preach – Kelly Osbourne
- Nessaja – Scooter
- I Love It When We Do – Ronan Keating
- When I Lost You – Sarah Whatmore
- Round Round – The Sugarbabes
- Fantasy – Appleton
- Addictive – Truth Hurts ft Rakim
- Walk On Water – Milk Inc
2004: Ramones guitarist guitarist Johnny Ramone (John Cummings) dies in Los Angeles after a five-year battle with prostate cancer.
2008: Pink Floyd keyboards player Richard Wright died aged 65 from cancer.
2012: Japan announces that it will phase out nuclear energy by the 2030s.
2015: Hungary seals its border with Serbia with a razor-wire fence, stranding thousands of migrants.
2017: A terrorist bomb only partially explodes in an attack at Parsons Green tube station, injuring 29 people. On the same day, actor Harry Dean Stanton dies aged 91.
2019: Ric Ocasek of The Cars is found dead in his New York City apartment aged 75. On the same day, Hong Kong police fire water cannons and tear gas at thousands of protesters outside the British embassy.
BIRTHDAYS: Emmerson Mnangagwa, president of Zimbabwe, 78; Tommy Lee Jones, actor/director, 74; Oliver Stone, director/screenwriter, 74; Johan Neeskens, Dutch footballer, 69; Brendan O’Carrolll, comedian/writer, 65; Jaki Graham, singer, 64; Jimmy Carr, comedian, 48; Paul Thomson, drummer (Franz Ferdinand) 43; Sophie Dahl, model/author, 43; Tom Hardy, actor, 43; Eiður Guðjohnsen, footballer, 42; Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, 36.