1156: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa issues the ‘Privilegium Minus’ decree, which elevates Austria to a duchy.
1394: Jews are expelled from France by order of King Charles VI.
1598: Dutch sailors discover the island of Mauritius.
1683: Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is the first to report the existence of bacteria.
1745: Edinburgh is occupied by Jacobites under Bonny Prince Charlie.
1789: William Herschel discovers Mimas, satellite of Saturn.
1809: The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn ending the war with Sweden.
1876: Race riots in South Carolina.
1900: Commonwealth of Australia proclaimed.
1931: The first long-playing record, a 33 1/3 rpm recording, was demonstrated at the Savoy Plaza Hotel in New York by RCA-Victor.
1934: RCA Victor releases the first 33 1/3rpm recording. Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. On the same day, the USSR joins the League of Nations.
1939: Poland’s President Ignacy Mościck and Prime Minister Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski flee to Romania as the Soviet Union invades Eastern Poland allowing Germans to advance West, taking 217,000 Poles prisoner, without a formal declaration of war.
1940: Adolf Hitler indefinitely postpones Operation Sealion, the planned German invasion of Britain.
1943: The Soviet city of Bryansk is liberated from the Nazis.
1944: Allied troops begin the airborne invasion of The Netherlands.
1949: “The Third Man” directed by Carol Reed wins the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film at Cannes.
1954: Lord Of The Flies by William Golding is published.
1956: Manchester solicitor Norman Buckley breaks the world water speed record on Lake Windermere. On the same day, Television is first broadcast in Australia.
1957: Two male attorneys “stand in” as actress Sophia Loren and producer Carlo Ponti wed by proxy in Juarez, Mexico.
1960: Cuba nationalizes US banks.
1964: Singles chart:
- You Really Got Me – The Kinks
- Have I The Right? – The Honeycombs
- I’m Into Something Good – Herman’s Hermits
- I Won’t Forget You – Jim Reeves
- Rag Doll – The Four Seasons
- The Crying Game – Dave Berry
- I Wouldn’t Trade You For The World – The Bachelors
- Do Wah Diddy Diddy – Manfred Mann
- Where Did Our Love Go? – The Supremes
- As Tears Go By – Marianne Faithfull
1967: Albums chart:
- Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band – The Beatles
- The Sound Of Music – Original Soundtrack
- Best Of The Beach Boys – The Beach Boys
- Scott – Scott Walker
- Dr Zhivago – Original Soundtrack
- The Piper At The Gates Of Dawn – Pink Floyd
- Headquarters – The Monkees
- Live At The Talk Of The Town – Tom Jones
- Are You Experienced – The Jimi Hendrix Experience
- Release Me – Englebert Humperdinck
1969: Media on both sides of the Atlantic were running stories that said Paul McCartney was dead. He was supposedly killed in a car accident in Scotland on November 9, 1966 and that a double had been taking his place for public appearances.
1970: Civil War breaks out in Jordan.
1976: The Sex Pistols play a gig for the inmates at Chelmsford Prison.
1977: The US wins the Ryder Cup at Royal Lytham & St Annes.
1978: The video for the Queen single ‘Bicycle Race’ was filmed at Wimbledon Stadium, It featured 65 naked female models racing around the stadium’s track on bicycles, which had been hired for the day. The rental company was reported to have requested payment for all the saddles when they found out how their bikes had been used. On the same day, Anwar Sadat, Menachem Begin and US President Jimmy Carter sign the Camp David Accords, frameworks for peace in the Middle East and between Egypt and Israel.
1980: South Korea opposition leader Kim Dae Jung is sentenced to death. On the same day, Iraq breaks a 1975 treaty with Iran and proclaims sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. Also Polish shipworkers at the Gdańsk Shipyard found the Solidarity movement under the leadership of Lech Walesa.
1982: Lebanese militia in West Beirut massacre Palastinians in the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila.
1985: Fashion designer Laura Ashley, dies aged 60 by falling down the stairs at her daughter’s home.
1986: Coronation Street actress Pat Phoenix (Elsie Tanner) dies from cancer aged 62.
1988: The Olympic games open at Seoul, South Korea.
1989: LA Law and Cheers are among the winners at the Emmy Awards.
1990: The Soviet Union and Saudi Arabia restore diplomatic ties.
1991: The UN admits Estonia, Latvia, Lithuiania, North & South Korea, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia.
1993: The British National Party wins its first council seat in a by-election as unemployed lorry driver Derek Beackon beats the Labour Party candidate by seven votes to take the marginal Millwall seat.
1994: Tennis star Vitas Gerulatis dies aged 40 of carbon monoxide poisoning from an improperly installed pool heater at a friend’s house.
1996: A bomb was found at a South London sorting office addressed to Icelandic singer Bjork. Police in Miami had alerted the post office after finding the body of Ricardo Lopez who had made a video of himself making the bomb and then killing himself. On the same day, former US vice president Spiro Agnew dies aged 77 from lukaemia.
1999: Singer Frankie Vaughan (Abelson) died of heart failure aged 71.
2000: TV personality Paula Yates was found dead in bed from a heroin overdose.
BIRTHDAYS: Des Lynam, sports presenter, 78; Billy Bonds MBE, former footballer/manager, 74; Fee (John) Waybill, singer (The Tubes) 70; William Gregory, keyboards (Goldfrapp) 61; Baz Luhrmann, director, 58; Bryan Singer, director, 55; Anastacia (Newkirk), singer, 52; Ken Doherty, snooker player, 51; Jonathan Jacob Walker, bassist (Panic! At The Disco) 35.