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44BC: Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
1192: Sultan Saladin and Richard I of England sign a treaty over Jerusalem, at the end of the Third Crusade.
1348: Joan, daughter of Edward III, dies of the plague aged 15 on her way to marry Prince Pedro of Spain.
1644: Robert Devereux’s Parliamentarian infantry surrenders to Royalist forces in the Battle of Lostwithiel, Cornwall, during the English Civil War.
1645: Alice Lisle is the last woman to be executed by a judicial sentence of beheading in England for harboring fugitives after the defeat of the Monmouth Rebellion.
1666: The Great Fire of London begins at 2am in Pudding Lane.
1752:The last Julian calendar day in Great Britain and the colonies, including America. To sync to the Gregorian calendar, 11 days are skipped and the next date is Sep 14.
1792: In Paris rampaging mobs slaughter three Roman Catholic bishops, more than 200 priests, and prisoners believed to be royalist sympathizers.
1807: The Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon.
1864: Union General William T Sherman captures and burns Atlanta during the American Civil War.
1870: Napoleon III surrenders to Prussian armies at the Battle of Sedan.
1885: In Rock Springs, Wyoming, US, 150 white miners, who were struggling to unionise so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers, killing 28, wounding 15, and forcing several hundred more out of town.
1898: The machine gun is first used in battle during the Spanish-American War.
1900: A large demonstration by Nationalists in Dublin’s Phoenix Park demand that Ireland be free of British rule.
1901: US President Theodore Roosevelt says: “Speak softly & carry a big stick”.
1902: “Le Voyage dans la Lune”, the first sci-fi film by Georges Méliès is released.
1910: Death of French post-impressionist painter Henri Rousseau, aged 66.
1919: Italy agrees to general voting right/proportional representation.
1931: Bing Crosby makes his solo radio debut.
1942: German troops enter Stalingrad.
1944: Teenager Anne Frank is sent to Auschwitz concentration camp.
1945: The formal surrender of Japan aboard USS Missouri marks the end of the Second World War. On the same day, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent from France.
1946: Jawaharlal Nehru forms government in India.
1956: Juan Manuel Fangio of Argentina finishes second in the Italian GP at Monza after Ferrari teammate Peter Collins sportingly hands over his car, to win his third straight Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
1958: Hendrik Verwoerd is appointed Prime Minister of South Africa. On the same day, a US Air Force plane is shot down by fighters over Yerevan, Armenia when it strays into Soviet airspace.
1960: New Zealand middle distance runner Peter Snell wins the 800m gold medal at the Rome Olympics. American sprinter Wilma Rudolph wins the 100m.
1963: Alabama governor George Wallace prevents integration at Tuskegee High School.
1965: Singles chart:
- I Got You Babe – Sonny and Cher
- Help! – The Beatles
- (I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction – The Rolling Stones
- All I Really Want To Do – The Byrds
- A Walk In The Black Forest – Horst Jankowski
- Zorba’s Dance – Marcello Minerbi
- Everyone’s Gone To The Moon – Jonathan King
- Make It Easy On Yourself – The Walker Brothers
- Like A Rolling Stone – Bob Dylan
- See My Friend – The Kinks
1969: President of North Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh dies aged 79.
1971: An IRA bomb wrecks the headquarters of the Ulster Unionist Party in Belfast.
1972: East German sprinter Renate Stecher sets world record 11.07 for the women’s 100m gold medal at the Munich Olympics.
1973: Author J R R Tolkien dies aged 81.
1978: Beatles guitarist George Harrison marries Olivia Arias. On the same day, Gloria Garcia marries musician and producer Emilio Estefan.
1979: Police discover the body of student Barbara Leach – the 12th victim of the “Yorkshire Ripper” – in an alleyway near the centre of Bradford.
1984: A 14-year-old girl and six bikers are killed in a gun battle between rival gangs in a suburb of Sydney, Australia.
1986: Cathy Evelyn Smith is sentenced to three years for supplying the drugs that caused the death of actor John Belushi in March 1982.
1987: Philips introduces CD-video.
1989: Ozzy Osbourne was charged with threatening to kill his wife Sharon. He was released on the condition that he immediately went into rehab. The case was later dropped when the couple decide to reconcile.
1994: Entertainer Roy Castle dies from cancer aged 62.
1995: Boxer Frank Bruno beats American champion Oliver McCall in a unanimous points decision in London for the WBC heavyweight title.
1998: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide.
2001: Ferrari’s Michael Schumacher wins the Belgian Grand Prix at Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps for his record 52nd F1 Grand Prix victory.
2002: Thieves broke into the London home of Icelandic singer Bjork while she was asleep and stole valuable recording equipment.
2006: Lead singer of the Isley Brothers, Ronald Isley was sentenced to three years in a US prison for multiple counts of tax fraud.
2007: Album chart:
- Hand Built By Robots – Newton Faulkner
- Back To Black – Amy Winehouse
- Life In Cartoon Motion – Mika
- The King – Elvis Presley
- Made Of Bricks – Kate Nash
- Good Girl Gone Bade – Rihanna
- Wait For Me – The Pigeon Detectives
- Shock Value – Timbaland
- These Streets – Paulo Nutini
- This Is The Life – Amy Macdonald
2013: Broadcaster David Jacobs dies aged 87.
2018: A fire at the National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro destroys most of its 20 million artifacts.
BIRTHDAYS: Mark Harmon, actor, 69; Jimmy Connors, tennis champion, 68; Steve Porcaro, keyboards (Toto) 63; Carlos Valderrama, Colombian footballer, 59; Keanu Reeves, actor, 56; Lennox Lewis, boxer, 55; Salma Hayek, actress, 54; Olivier Panis, racing driver, 54; Joey Barton, football manager, 38.