480 BC: The Greeks defeated the Persians at the Battle of Salamis to halt their advance into Europe.
1846: German astronomer Johann Galle and his assistant Heinrich d’Arrest discovered Neptune.
1848: Chewing-gum was first commercially produced by John Curtis on a stove in his home in Bangor, Maine, and sold as State Of Maine Pure Spruce Gum.
1889: Wilkie Collins, novelist and pioneer of detective fiction (The Woman In White, The Moonstone), died in London.
1912: The first Keystone Cops film was released in America by Mack Sennett, called Cohen Collects A Debt.
1939: Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychiatrist and founder of psychoanalysis, died in Hampstead, aged 83.
1964: The first performance of Fiddler On The Roof took place in New York with Zero Mostel singing If I Were A Rich Man.
1973: Juan Peron was re-elected president of Argentina after being ousted almost 18 years earlier.
1974: The BBC Ceefax teletext service began.
BIRTHDAYS: Julio Iglesias, singer, 76; Bruce Springsteen, singer/songwriter, 70; Nicholas Witchell, journalist, 66; Cherie Blair (Cherie Booth QC), barrister, 65; Karl Pilkington, TV presenter, 47; Trinidad James, rapper, 32.