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301: San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world’s oldest republic still in existence, is founded by Saint Marinus.
1189: Richard I is crowned in Westminster.
1651: Oliver Cromwell destroys English royalists at the Battle of Worcester.
1658: Richard Cromwell succeeds his father as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth on the death of Oliver Cromwell aged 59.
1725: Britain, France, Hannover and Prussia sign the Covenant of Hannover.
1752: People riot thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives as Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar.
1777: The flag of the United States is flown in battle for the first time at Cooch’s Bridge, Delaware, a skirmish during the American Revolutionary War.
1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed to end the American Revolutionary War between Britain and the USA.
1878: British passenger paddle steamer Princess Alice sinks in a collision on the River Thames with the collier Bywell Castle; 645 die.
1881: Anton Bruckner completes his 6th Symphony.
1900: Britain annexes the Boer Republic of South Africa.
1914: French troops vacate Rheims.
1916: French counter-attacks on German flanks push their frontline further back at the Battle of Verdun.
1917: The first night bombing of London by German aircraft. On the same day, German troops overrun Riga, Latvia.
1918: Allies force Germans back across the Hindenburg Line.
1924: Civil war breaks out in China.
1935: Malcolm Campbell powers Bluebird to 301.129mph at Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah. The first time a car has exceeded 300mph.
1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany. On the same day, Nazi sympathizer Unity Mitford attempts suicide. The bullet lodges in her brain and takes nine years to kill her.
1940: The US gives Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for Newfoundland base lease.
1943: Allied troops invade mainland Italy.
1944: French troops liberate Lyon. On the same day, at British tank division frees Brussels.
1950: Giuseppe “Nino” Farina wins the inaugural Formula 1 World Drivers Championship in an Alfa Romeo.
1954: The National Trust purchases Fair Isle in northern Scotland.
1956: Tanks are deployed against racist demonstrators in Clinton, Tennessee.
1962: Death of poet E. E. Cummings aged 67.
1964: US attorney general Robert Kennedy resigns.
1965: A Rolling Stones gig in Dublin ends in a riot after 30 fans jump onto the stage. Mick Jagger is knocked to the floor as the rest of the band flee the stage.
1967: Sweden switches to driving on the right-hand side of road, causing traffic chaos.
1968: After a two-week absence Ringo Starr rejoined The Beatles. Upon his return to the studio, he found his drum kit covered with flowers to welcome him back.
1970: Al Wilson guitarist and songwriter with Canned Heat was found dead in fellow band member Bob Hite’s garden in Topanga Canyon, LA, aged 27. On the same day, Arthur Brown was arrested at the Palermo Pop ’70 Festival in Italy after setting fire to his helmet (during the performance of his hit ‘Fire’), and stripping naked. He was held for four days.
1971: Qatar regains complete independence from Britain. On the same day, a baby girl and a UDR soldier are killed in separate shooting incidents in Northern Ireland.
1972: American swimmer Mark Spitz wins the 100m gold medal in world record 51.22 at the Munich Olympics. Lasse Virén of Finland wins the 10,000m in a world record 27:38.35 and Britain’s Mary Peters wins the pentathlon.
1976: A riot at high security Hull Prison ends after 67 hours of inmates going on the rampage. On the same day, Viking 2 soft lands on Mars.
1984: At least 1,300 people die and hundreds more are injured as the worst storm in living memory sweeps across the southern Philippines.
1989: Singles chart:
- Ride On Time – Black Box
- Swing The Mood – Jive Bunny and the Mastermixers
- Every Day ( I Love You More) – Jason Donovan
- Blame It On The Boogie – Big Fun
- I Just Don’t Have The Heart – Cliff Richard
- Sowing The Seeds Of Love – Tears For Fears
- Hey DJ I Can’t Dance To That Music You’re Playing – Beatmasters ft Betty Boo
- Poison – Alice Cooper
- Numero Uno – Starlight
- Toy Soldiers – Martika
- Cuts Both Ways – Gloria Estefan
- Ten Good Reasons – Jason Donovan
- A New Flame – Simply Red
- Imagination – Imagination
- Trash – Alice Cooper
- Adeva – Adeva
- The Raw And The Cooked – Fine Young Cannibals
- Choices – The Blow Monkeys
- Singalongawaryears – Max Bygraves
- Batman (Original Soundtrack) – Prince
1991: Film director Frank Capra dies aged 94.
1994: Death of football legend Billy Wright aged 70.
2003: The Libertines singer/guitarist Pete Doherty was sentenced to six months in jail after being found guilty of burglary and drug possession charges. His sentence was reduced to two months on appeal.
2004: More than 200 people die, many of them children, after a three-day siege at a school in Beslan in the Russian republic of North Ossetia, comes to a bloody end. On the same day, Sir Cliff Richard stunned the music industry by ending his contract with EMI records after 46 years and signing for Eminem’s label Universal Music.
2005: Musician Fats Domino was rescued from his flooded home in New Orleans after being feared dead in the eake of Hurricane Katrina.
2010: Cellist Mike Edwards a founding member of ELO was killed in a freak accident when a giant bale of hay tumbled down a hill and crashed into his van in Devon. On the same day, Cyril Smith, Liberal Member of Parliament and alleged serial sex offender, dies aged 82. Also, singer Cheryl Cole divorces soccer player Ashley Cole due to his unreasonable behavior.
2017: Walter Becker, co-founder and guitarist with Steely Dan died aged 67.
2019: Songwriter LaShawn Daniels, who co-wrote such hits as Destiny’s Child’s ‘Say My Name’ and Lady Gaga’s ‘Telephone’ died in a car crash in South Carolina aged 41.
BIRTHDAYS: Pauline Collins, actress, 80; Al Jardine, guitarist/singer (The Beach Boys) 78; Valerie Perrine, actress, 77; Gary Leeds, drummer (The Walker Brothers) 76; Eric Bell, guitarist (Thin Lizzy) 73; Steve Jones, guitarist (The Sex Pistols) 65; Suzanne Freitag, singer (Propaganda) 63; Charlie Sheen, actor, 55; Gareth Southgate, England football manager, 50; Fearne Cotton, broadcaster, 39; Gareth Hedlund, actor, 36; Scott Carson, Fulham FC manager, 35; Chris Fountain, actor, 33.