1399: Richard II abdicates.
1520: Suleiman the Magnificent succeeds his father Selam I as Ottoman Sultan.
1544: Henry VIII pulls his armies out of France.
1555: Bishop of Oxford Nicholas Ridley is sentenced to death as a heretic.
1791: Mozart’s opera The Magic Flute premieres in Vienna.
1805: Napoleon Bonaparte’s army draws into the Rhine.
1808: The Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, is destroyed by fire.
1841: Samuel Slocum patents the stapler.
1846: Anesthetic ether is used for the first time by American dentist Dr William Morton who extracts a tooth.
1868: Queen Isabella of Spain is deposed and flees to France.
1878: New Zealand’s South Island is hit by a massive flood.
1880: Amateur astronomer Henry Draper takes the first ever photograph of the Orion Nebula.
1885: Bechuanaland becomes a British protectorate.
1888: “Jack the Ripper” murders two more women, Liz Stride and Kate Eddowes, in Whitechapel.
1895: France proclaims a protectorate over Madagascar.
1916: Greek prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos announces he is forming a Provisional Government in Crete as an alternative to the one in Athens because he is determined to bring Greece into the war on the side of the Allies.
1919: Race riot at Elaine, Arkansas.
1925: General Pangulos disbands the Greek parliament.
1929: The first manned rocket plane flight by auto manufacturer Fritz von Opel.
1935: George Gershwin’s “Porgy and Bess” premieres in Boston.
1936: Pinewood Studios opens in Bucks.
1938: The Treaty of Munich is signed by Hitler, Mussolini, Daladier and Chamberlain, which forces Czechoslovakia to give territory to Germany. By agreeing to the annexation of the Sudetenland, Chamberlain naively believes he has averted war with Germany.
1940: 47 German aircraft are shot down over England.
1941: The German assault on Moscow, Operation Typhoon, begins.
1945: A rail crash at Bourne End, Herts, kills 43.
1946: 22 Nazi leaders, including Joachim von Ribbentrop and Hermann Goering are found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death or prison at the Nuremberg war trials.
1955: Film icon James Dean is killed aged 24 when his new Porsche Spyder collides with a Ford Tudor at an intersection..
1957: The Government reveals details of plans to reform the House of Lords which include creating the first women life peerages.
1967: Launch of the UK’s first National pop radio station, BBC Radio 1 as DJ Tony Blackburn plays Flowers In The Rain by The Move.
1971: Ian Paisley and Desmond Boal launch the Democratic Unionist Party in Northern Ireland.
1977: Legendary guitarist/singer Mary Ford dies from cancer after being in a diabetic coma for 54 days.
1980: Iran rejects a truce call from Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
1981: Nicholas Reid, the secretary of the UK’s pro-euthanasia group Exit is sentenced to two and a half years for aiding and abetting suicide. On the same day, the International Olympic Committee votes to award the hosting of the1988 Summer Olympic Games to Seoul, South Korea.
1982: The Commonwealth Games open in Brisbane, Australia.
1984: Father Jerzy Popieluszko, an outspoken supporter of Poland’s banned trade union Solidarity, is found dead 11 days after he was kidnapped.
1986: Mordechai Vanunu, who revealed details of Israel’s covert nuclear program to British media, is kidnapped in Rome.
1988: Andrei Gromyko retires as Soviet Foreign Minister.
1989: NASA closes down tracking stations on Hawaii and Ascension. On the same day, West German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher grants escaping East Germans free passage to the West.
- Show Me Heaven – Maria McKee
- I’ve Been Thinking About You – London Beat
- Blue Velvet – Bobby Vinton
- So Hard – Pet Shop Boys
- The Anniversary Waltz – Status Quo
- The Joker – The Steve Miller Band
- I Can’t Stand It – Twenty4seven ft Capt Hollywood
- Groove Is In The Heart – Deee-Lite
- Fascinating Rhythm – Bass-O-Matic
- Groovy Train – The Farm
- In Concert – Luciano Pavarotti, Jose Carreras and Placido Domngo
- X – INXS
- Listen Without Prejudice Volume 1 – George Michael
- The Razor’s Edge – AC/DC
- Boomania – Betty Boo
- Sleeping With The Past – Elton John
- Soul Provider – Michael Bolton
- Rust In Peace – Megadeth
- Ooh Las Vegas – Deacon Blue
- Room To Roam – The Waterboys
1991: Jean Betrand Aristide is ousted as president of Haiti.
1993: Singer Kate Pierson of The B-52s is charged with criminal mischief and trespassing during an anti-fur protest at ‘Vogue’s’ New York City offices.
1994: Music channel VH1 launches in the UK with the first airing of the video for ‘Dolphin’ by The Artist Formerly Known As Prince. On the same day, Sylvestre Ntibantunganya is elected president of Burundi,
1997: Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 4.
1999: Japan’s worst nuclear accident occurs at a uranium reprocessing facility in Tōkai-mura, northeast of Tokyo.
2005: The Parliament of Catalonia passes with 120 plus votes and 15 against, the Project of New Catalan Statute of Autonomy, proclaiming in its article 1, “Catalonia is a nation”. On the same day, controversial drawings of the prophet Muhammad are printed in Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.
2007: Germany beats Brazil, 2-0 to win the FIFA Women’s World Cup in China.
2011: Guitarist and songwriter Marv Tarplin, best known for his songwriting partnership with Smokey Robinson, died aged 70.
2012: Europe retains the Ryder Cup at Medinah.
2016: Schoolboy Michael Fenerty who skipped class to meet his musical hero at a meet-and-greet in the Free Library of Philadelphia handed his teacher an absence note with a difference. The typewritten note was signed by Bruce Springsteen.
2018: Europe retains the Ryder Cup. Sergio Garcia becomes the biggest point scorer in event history with 25½.
2019: Opera singer Jessye Norman dies aged 74.
BIRTHDAYS: Angie Dickinson (Angeline Brown) actress, 89; Johnny Mathis, singer, 85; Ian Ogilvy, actor, 77; Rula Lenska (Róża Maria Leopoldyna Łubieńska) actress, 73; Victoria Tennant, actress, 70; Patrice Rushen, musician, 66; Fran Drescher, actress, 63; Eric Stoltz, actor, 59; Frank Rijkaard, Dutch footballer, 58; Monica Bellucci, actress, 56; Marion Cotillard, actress, 45; Martina Hingis, tennis star, 40; Ben Lovett, musician, (Mumford & Sons) 34; Ezra Miller, actor, 28; Maddie Ziegler, dancer/actress, 18.