1399: Richard II abdicates.
1791: Mozart’s “Magic Flute” premiers in Vienna.
1846: Anesthetic ether used for first time by American dentist Dr William Morton who extracts a tooth.
1888 Jack the Ripper murders Liz Stride and Kate Eddowes in Whitechapel.
1936: Pinewood Studios opens in Bucks.
1938: The Treaty of Munich, signed by Chamberlain, Mussolini, Hitler and Deladier forces Czechoslovakia to give territory to Germany.
1946: Hermann Goering and Joachim von Ribbentrop are sentenced at the Nazi war trials in Nuremberg.
1955: Film star James Dean is killed in a car crash.
1960: The Flintstones premiers on US television
1966: Botswana gains independence from Britain.
1967: Radio 1 begins broadcasting on the BBC with Tony Blackburn playing Flowers In The Rain by The Move.
1971: Ian Paisley and Desmond Boal launch the Democratic Unionist Party in Norther Ireland.
1975: Schoolboy Michael Fenerty from Philadelphia who skipped class to meet his musical hero handed his teacher an absence note with a difference. The typewritten note was signed by Bruce Springsteen.
2012 and 2018: Europe retains the Ryder Cup.
BIRTHDAYS: Ian Ogilvy, actor, 76; Rula Lenska, actress, 72; Frank Rijkaard, former footballer, 57; Monica Bellucci, actress, 55; Marion Cotillard, actress, 44; Martina Hingis, former tennis player, 39; Ola Jordan, dancer, 37; Olivier Giroud, footballer, 33; Ezra Miller, actor, 27; Max Verstappen, Formula 1 driver, 22.