1571: Catholic rebellion in Scotland.
1682: Astronomer Edmond Halley observes the comet named after him.
1824: Birth of composer Anton Bruckner in Austria.
1842: Work on Cologne cathedral recommences after a 284-year hiatus.
1862: General Robert E Lee invades the North with 50,000 Confederate troops in the American Civil War.
1882: In its first large scale test, Thomas Edison’s light bulb is used to light New York’s Pearl Street Station.
1884: Britain ends its policy of penal transportation to New South Wales, Australia.
1886: Apache chief Geronimo surrenders, ending last major US-Indian war.
1888: George Eastman patents the first roll-film camera & registers “Kodak”.
1893: Author Beatrix Potter first writes the story of Peter Rabbit for a five year-old boy.
1904: The Dalai Lama signs a treaty allowing British commerce in Tibet.
1907: Death of Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg aged 64.
1912: The first collision in the London Underground injures 22 people.
1914: France, Russia, and Britain agree a pact that none will make a separate peace.
1933: Coup on Cuban president De Cespedes by Fulgencio Batista, who remains in power for 26 years.
1936: Franco’s troops conquer Irun and Talavera de la Reina, Spain.
1939: German troops move into Danzig. On the same day, Mir, a Nazi ghetto in occupied Poland, is exterminated.
1944: The British 11th Armoured Division frees Antwerp. On the same day, Finland breaks diplomatic relations with Nazi Germany.
1948: Queen Wilhelmina abdicates the Dutch throne.
1951: The first transcontinental TV broadcast, by US President Harry Truman.
1957: The Wolfenden Report suggests consenting sex between homosexual adults “in private” should no longer be a criminal offence in Britain. On the same day, Governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, calls out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock’s Central High School.
1962: The Beatles record the song ‘How Do You Do It’ at EMI Studios in Abbey Road. They deliberately make a hash of it as they want to record their own compositions. The song is eventually a No1 for Gerry and The Pacemakers the following year.
1964: The Queen officially opens the Forth Road Bridge, Europe’s longest suspension bridge linking Edinburgh to Perth.
1966: Jack Brabham clinches his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship, coming sixth at the Italian Grand Prix in Monza.
1968: Nigerian troops conquer the city of Aba, Biafra, during the Nigerian Civil War.
- I’ve Gotta Get A Message To You – The Bee Gees
- Do it Again – The Beach Boys
- This Guy’s In Love With You – Herb Alpert
- I Say A Little Prayer – Aretha Franklin
- Help Yourself – Tom Jones
- High In The Sky – Amen Corner
- Hold Me Tight – Johnny Nash
- Fire – The Crazy World of Arthur Brown
- Mony Mony – Tommy James and The Shondells
- On The Road Again – Canned Heat
1970: Russian ballerina Natalia Makarova defects in London. On the same day, Marxist Salvador Allende wins a narrow plurality of votes in Chile’s presidential election. Also, IRA member Michael Kane is killed in the premature explosion of a bomb he was planting at an electricity transformer in Belfast.
1972: Mark Spitz becomes the first athlete to win seven gold medals at a single Olympic Games as part of the American 4x100m swimming relay at Munich. On the same day, Soviet athlete Valeriy Borzov wins the 200m to complete the sprint double. Also Kenyan legend Kip Keino follows his 1,500m gold iat the Mexico games in 1968 with an Olympic record of 8:23.64 to win the 3,000m steeplechase.
1984: Nigerian singer Fela Kuti is sentenced to two years in prison on a charge of currency smuggling which Amnesty International and others denounce as politically motivated.
1988: Actor Kevin Bacon marries actress Kyra Sedgwick.
1994: Album chart:
- Definitely Maybe – Oasis
- The 3 Tenors in Concert – Luciano Pavarotti, Placido Domingo, Jose Carreras
- End Of Part One: Their Greatest Hits – Wet Wet Wet
- Twelve Deadly Cyns…And Then Some – Cyndi Lauper
- Parklife – Blur
- The Holy Bible – Manic Street Preachers
- The Essential Collection – Elvis Presley
- Always And Forever – Eternal
- Brother Sister – Brand New Heavies
- Secret World Live – Peter Gabriel
1998: Google is incorporated by Stanford University students Larry Page and Sergey Brin.On the same day, the quiz show ‘Who Wants To Be A Millionaire’ begins on ITV.
2006: Australian naturalist and TV personality Steve Irwin is attacked and killed by a stingray while filming at 44.
2008: The first guitar torched on stage by Jimi Hendrix sold for £280,000 at an auction of rock memorabilia.
2014: Comedienne Joan Rivers dies at 81 after complications from a procedure on her vocal cords.
2015: Ska and reggae trombonist Rico Rodriguez dies aged 80.
2016: Mother Teresa is canonised at The Vatican by Pope Francis.
2018: Amazon becomes America’s second trillion dollar company.
2019: Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam withdraws the controversial extradition bill to China after three months of massive protests. On the same day, a rebel alliance of MPs vote to ban a no-deal Brexit and reject PM Boris Johnson’s call for a snap election.
BIRTHDAYS: Mitzi Gaynor (Francesca von Gerber), actress, 89; Dawn Fraser, Australian swimmer, 83; Tom Watson, golfer, 71; Martin Chambers, drummer (The Pretenders) 69; Damon Wayans, actor/comedian, 60; Kim Thayil, guitarist (Soundgarden) 60; Guto Pryce, bassist (Super Furry Animals) 48; Mark Ronson, producer/musician, 45; Beyonce (Knowles/Carter), singer, 39; James Bay, singer-songwriter, 30.