1157: Birth of Richard the Lionheart in Oxford. 1276: John XXI, the only Portuguese pope is elected. 1380: Moscow’s great
70AD: The Romans occupy and plunder Jerusalem. 1191: Richard I defeats Saladin at Arsuf in the Third Crusade. 1497: Pretender
1492: Christopher Columbus’ fleet leaves Gomera, one of the Canary Islands. 1620: The Mayflower departs Plymouth with 102 Pilgrims and
1548: Death of Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII. 1638: Birth of Louis XIV in Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France.
1571: Catholic rebellion in Scotland. 1682: Astronomer Edmond Halley observes the comet named after him. 1824: Birth of composer Anton
301: San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world’s oldest republic still in existence, is
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44BC: Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. 1192: Sultan Saladin and Richard I of
1482: Tatars plunder Kiev, Ukraine. 1535: French navigator Jacques Cartier reaches Hochelaga (Montreal). 1557: Death of Jacques Cartier aged 65.