It happened today – this day in history – January 17

1377: Pope Gregory XI moves the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon. 1501: Cesare Borgia returns in triumph to Rome

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It happened today – this day in history – January 16

550: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege by bribing the Isaurian garrison. 1362: A storm

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It happened today – this day in history – January 15

1412: Birth of Joan of Arc. 1535: Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church in England. 1552: France signs

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It happened today – this day in history – January 14

1690: The clarinet is invented in Nürnberg, Germany. 1724: King Philip V abdicates the Spanish throne. 1742: Astronomer Edmond Halley

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It happened today – this day in history – January 13

1099: Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria. 1404: The Act of Multipliers is passed by Parliament forbidding alchemists to use

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It happened today – this day in history – January 12

1528: Gustav I is crowned King of Sweden. 1723: George Frideric Handel’s opera “Ottone” premieres at the King’s Theatre, London.

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It happened today – this day in history – January 10

49BC: Julius Caesar defies the Roman Senate and crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war which would lead

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It happened today – this day in history – January 9

1493: First sight of manatees by Christopher Columbus. 1570: Ivan the Terrible kills 1,000-2,000 residents of Novgorod. 1718: France declares

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