It happened today – this day in history – July 12

1109: Crusaders capture Tripoli. 1191: Richard I (the Lionheart) and crusaders defeat Saracens in Palestine. 1542: French troops occupy Flanders.

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It happened today – this day in history – October 5

1568: The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots begins at the Conference of York. 1796: Spain declares war on England.

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